Final Report
International Olympiad in Informatics
1992 Bonn / Germany

Authors:

Peter Heyderhoff (Editor),
Hans-Werner Hein,
Fritz Krückeberg,
Günther Miklitz,
Peter Widmayer

Table of Contents

1. The IOI'92
1.1 History and Aims [Hey]
1.2 Governmental Support [Hey]
1.3 Sponsors [Hey]
1.4 International Organisations [Hey]
1.5 National Organisations [Krü]
The Supporters
The National Competition
The National Committee
1.6 The Scientific Structure [Hey]
The International Jury
The Scientific Committee
The Coordinating Committee
1.7 The Organisational Structure [Hey]
Convention office
1.8 Main Organisational Tasks [Mik]
Financial Management
Personnel Management
Hosting of Teams and Guests
Information Brochures
Graphic Design
Rooms and Equipment
1.9 Preparational Events
Meetings of the National Committee [Krü]
Meeting of the International Committee [Hey]
Meetings of the Scientific Committee [Hein]
Youth Meeting with the President [Hey]
1.10 Carrying out the IOI
The Invitation [Hey]
The Arrival Day [Hey]
Opening Ceremony [Hey]
Opening Speeches
Press Conference
Meetings of the International Jury [Wid]
Meetings of the Coordinating Committee [Hein]
The Competition Days [Hey]
Cultural Activities [Mik]
Prize Giving Ceremony [Hey]
Closing Speeches
Press Conference [Krü]
1.11 Views and Echos [Krü]
View to Argentina (IOI'93)
Echos from the world

2. International Committee [Hey]
2.1 Its History and Composition
2.2 Meeting and Decisions

3. Regulations [Hey]
3.1 Main Regulations
3.2 Arbitration and Evaluation Rules
3.3 Regulations for the Organisation
3.4 The Online Documentation System
3.5 Evaluation Schedule

4. Problems and Solutions [Hein]
4.0 The Submitted Problems
4.1 The Proposed Problems
4.2 The First Selected Problem
4.3 The Second Selected Problem

5. Final Results and Statistics [Hey]
5.1 Participation
5.2 Training Reports
5.3 Medals and Nations
5.4 The Twelve Most Successful Teams
5.5 The Winners

6. Program of the IOI'92 [Hey]

7. Participants [Hey]
7.1 Participating Countries
7.2 Represented Institutions
7.3 Participating People
Students
Students Adresses
Adresses of Teamleaders
Accompanying Persons

8. Members of Committees [Hey]
8.1 International Jury
8.2 International Committee
8.3 National Committee
8.4 Scientific Committee
8.5 Coordinating Committee
8.6 Organizing Committee
8.7 Technical Committee
8.8 Reception Committee

Code of Authors:

The Place of the IOI'92: Schloß Birlinghoven

The German National Research Centre for Informatics and Information Technology (GMD)

[Image omitted]

The Convention Hotel of the IOI'92

Gustav Stresemann Institut, Bonn

[Image omitted]

The IOI Nations of the World

[Image omitted]

Copyright 1991
PC Globe, Inc.
Tempe, AZ, USA.

1. The IOI'92

1.1 History and Aims

History

The idea of initiating international olympiads in informatics for school students was proposed to the 24th general conference of UNESCO by the Bulgarian delegate Prof. Sendov in October 1987. This plan was included into the fifth main program of UNESCO for the biennium 1988-1989.

In May 1989, UNESCO initiated and sponsored the first International Olympiad in Informatics which was held in Pravetz, Bulgaria. Although it was the first Olympiad in Informatics, 13 countries participated. This number is considered to be very high compared with the number of countries which participated in the first Olympiads in Mathematics, Physics and other sciences.

During the first IOI in Bulgaria, the German delegate Dr. Peter Heyderhoff had submitted the candidacy of Germany for organizing the fourth IOI in 1992.

The conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the States of the Federal Republic of Germany decided that the next olympiad in sciences after the International Mathematics Olympiad 1989, which was organized by the state of Lower Saxony, should be organized in a similar manner by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia.

The Informatics Olympiad is held annually. The following list shows how participation developed over the years and which countries will host the next olympiads. We remember the excellent hosting by Bulgaria, Belorussia and Greece.

  1. 1989, 16 - 19 May,
    Pravetz, Bulgaria,
    President: P. Kenderow.
    13 Countries:
    Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Germany FR, Germany DR, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Soviet Union, Viet Nam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe.

  2. 1990, 15 - 21 July,
    Minsk, Belorussia,
    President: N. Krasovsky.
    25 Countries:
    Argentina, Bulgaria, Belorussia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Germany FR, Germany DR, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Korea, Kuwait, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom, Viet Nam, Yugoslavia.

  3. 1991, 19 - 25 May,
    Athens, Greece,
    President: G. Philokyprou.
    26 Countries:
    Argentina, Bulgaria, Belorussia, China, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Korea, Kuwait, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom, Viet Nam, Yugoslavia.

  4. 1992, 12 - 21 July,
    Bonn, Germany,
    President: P. Widmayer.
    51 Countries:
    Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belorussia, Bulgaria, Switzerland, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Gabon, Greece, Hungary, Hong Kong, Italy, Iran, Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand, Trinidad Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Ukraine, United States, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

  5. 1993, 16 - 25 October Mendoza, Argentina.

  6. 1994 will be held in Sweden.

  7. 1995 will be held in The Netherlands.

  8. 1996 will be held in Hungary.

Aims

The olympiad aims at motivating young people to

1.2 Governmental Support

List of Institutions

IOI'92 was supported by the
Federal Republic of Germany

represented by the
Federal Minister of Education and Science

in cooperation with the
Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany

and in consultation with the
Federal Foreign Office.

In order to understand this structure one should consider that according to the federal structure of Germany the main responsibility for all matters of culture and education is not with the federal government but with the 16 autonomous states (Länder). On the other hand all contacts with foreign countries are the responsibility of the foreign office of the federal government. So the official inivitation was presented by the Federal Foreign Office. The main financial support was given by the Federal Minister of Education and Science. The IOI'92 was held in Bonn and organized by the state of North-Rhine-Westphalia.

All planning, preparational and organizing activities were done by the National Committee and the organizing office of the German National Competition in Informatics called "Bundeswettbewerb Informatik".

Welcoming Letters

The Minister of Education and Science of the Federal Republic of Germany

"It is a great pleasure for me to know that the Fourth International Olympiad in Informatics 1992 is taking place in Germany.

This Olympiad in Informatics is a competition which contributes to finding highly gifted students and developing their talents. In the short period of its existence it has developed into a world-wide contest. With representatives of 51 states and with 47 delegations, the highest level of participation ever has been achieved this year.

After hosting the International Olympiad in Physics 1982, in Chemistry 1984 and in Mathematics 1989 it is a great honour for the Federal Republic of Germany to host also the International Olympiad in Informatics. When young informatics students from many countries compare their skills and when they compete peacefully in a contest with such stringent requirements, the ambitious name Olympiad is justified.

For this competition I wish you every success and excellent achievements which will make your preparations worthwhile. I hope that you will gain many beautiful and interesting impressions during your stay in Germany and that you will be able to make numerous friendships world-wide."

Prof. Rainer Ortleb

The President of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany

"In the last decade the new information and communication technologies have initiated profound changes in science, culture and society. They are gradually permeating modern life in all its aspects and they have a lasting impact on the world of work. The innovative process generated by them has been for all industrialized nations both a challenge and chance in politics for all industrialized nations.

Electronic microprocessors are taking on the burden of mechanic routine work and of dangerous and exhausting activities; they accelerate information processing, increase productivity, and they have become an indespensable tool in solving problems and in organizing learning. But an increase in the processing of personal data entails also the risk of misuse, and it may cause inadmissable interferences with the personal rights of the individual.

The educational system as a whole is obgliged to meet these new challenges. It must not only act in response to them but has to contribute to actively shaping these tasks. Since the media are especially effective in influencing young people in their thinking, feeling and acting, schools must see their new importance and responsibility.

The ministers of education and cultural affairs of the Länder have encouraged the integration of the new information and communication technologies into teaching and education by a series of agreements. As early as 1972 they initiated the acceptance of the informatics in the curriculum of the senior level at secondary schools (gymnasiale Oberstufe), and in 1982 they agreed on uniform examination standards for the Abitur exam. (The abitur is a secondary school leaving certificate equivalent to other countries' university entrance examinations.)

The education in information technology has become an established element in the school curricula of all Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany. The objective is to give all young people a basic understanding of the new technologies and to educate them in understanding and using the media in a rational and critical way. Boys and girls at school are also to be given possibilities to gain creative and playful access to these technologies.

Especially gifted young people are to be given the opportunity of deepening their interest in informatics beyond the regular classroom lessons and of comparing their achievements with students of similar talents and interests. The German Competition in Informatics which is supported by both the Federal Government and the Länder serves this purpose.

The International Olympiad in Informatics is a forum for those who have qualified as best in this discipline and who have won national competitions. This year 46 delegations from all over the world are coming to Bonn to compete in solving computer programming tasks. I cordially welcome all guests and I wish the participants much success in the competition.

I hope that you will remember your stay in Germany with pleasure, not only the competition but also the program and the encounters with people from all over the world."

Prof. Diether Breitenbach

The Minister of Education, Culture and Sports of North Rhine Westphalia

"Dear Participants of the Fourth International Olympiad in Informatics. With great pleasure I welcome you to this year's International Olympiad in Informatics in Bonn. I am delighted that so many delegations from all over the world have come to take part in this competition.

The great number of participants shows how quickly the idea has spread that the most highly talented and motivated students of various nations should be given the chance to meet in an international contest, which also gives the opportunity to learn something about the host country, to exchange views with others and to make friends.

I am glad that this competition is taking place in North Rhine Westphalia and that we can show you some parts of it. I do hope that the program we are offering you is mooting your interest and that you will enjoy the excursions as well as the competition.

I wish you much success in the competition and a very pleasant stay in North Rhine Westphalia."

Hans Schwier

1.3 Sponsors

IBM Deutschland GmbH, Stuttgart

Siemens Nixdorf AG, München

Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V., Bonn

Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung mbH, Sankt Augustin

Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg

UNESCO, Paris


Aachen-Münchener Informatik Service, Aachen

Apple Computer mbH, Ismaning

Berlin2000 Olympia GmbH, Berlin

Borland GmbH, Langen

Bücher Behrendt, Bonn

Cornelson Verlagsgesellschaft, Bielefeld

Co.Tec, Computergestütztes Lernen, Rosenheim

Digital Equipment GmbH, München

Ernst Klett-Schulbuchverlag GmbH, Stuttgart

Evangelischer Ausländerdienst e.V., Dortmund

Falken-Verlag GmbH, Niedernhausen

Hansen & Gieraths EDV-Vertriebs GmbH, Bonn

hr werbung gmbh, Frankfurt

Lanier Deutschland, Neuss

Markt & Technik GmbH, München

Microsoft GmbH, Unterschleißheim

Parsytec Anwendungen GmbH, Aachen

Stoll EDV Europe GmbH, Swisstal

Telekom - Deutsche Bundespost, Bonn

Travelling Software Inc., Bothell, USA

Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg.

1.4 International Organisations

UNESCO

A representative of UNESCO is always invited to the olympiads. UNESCO initiated the first olympiad and contributed to the fourth olympiad by sponsoring this final report. UNESCO is a link to other science olympiads and distributes information around the world about the IOI's. It is also distributing this report.

IFIP

The chairman of the IFIP Technical Committee TC3 on Education, Prof. Tom van Weert was invited and participated in the IOI'92. As a guest to the International Committee he made the following proposals concerning the future involvement of IFIP:

There could be

These points have been discussed and it had been decided to start with the last one.

The Chief Coordinator of IOI'92 Dr. Hans-Werner Hein informed the 12th World Computer Congress "IFIP CONGRESS 92", which was held in the beginning of September 1992 in Madrid, Spain. He gave a poster illustrated lecture about:

"International Olympiads in Informatics:
What is a proper programming competition task?"

He pointed out that an important topic conerning programming competitions is that of the implicit use of certain informatics paradigms. Informatics started on one hand with mathematical paradigms (e.g. Turing machine etc.) on the other hand with product specific paradigms (eg. von-Neumann processor). Meanwhile many paradigms are used concurrently in informatics and new ones appear every now and then (e.g. Object based systems, Neural Nets). It seems to be evident that an IOI competition should not stress certain informatics paradigms too much. His conclusion was that a programming task should have the features: basically paradigm-free, context-free (in a cultural sense), text easy to understand and carefully worded, task decomposable and easily demontrated, results to be easily judged, and, within the olympic constraints, educational.

1.5 National Organisations

The Role of Supporters and Organizers

The Supporters (GMD and GI)

The German National Research Centre for Informatics and Information Technology (GMD)

Address:
GMD
Postfach 1316
D-53757 Sankt Augustin
Telephone:
+49-2441-14-0
Chairman of the Board of Directors:
Prof. Dennis Tsichritzis

The Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (GMD) is a limited liability company and was founded in 1968. Its partners are the Federal Republic of Germany and the States of North-Rhine-Westphalia and Hesse. The GMD is member of the Association of National Reseach Institutions (AGF) in Germany.

The objectives of the GMD are:

The GMD has been concentrating its research and development tasks in four typical fields, thus defining the following research areas:

Eight GMD institutes in three locations are forming the organisational framework for these research and development tasks sharing different parts in them:

Schloß Birlinghoven / Sankt Augustin
I1 Institute for Foundation of Information Technology
I3 Institute for Applied Information Technology
I5 Institute for System Design Technology
I8 Institute for Application oriented Software- and Systems Technology

Berlin - Adlershof
I6 Institue for Computer and Software Technology
I7 Institute for Open Communication Systems

Darmstadt
I2 Institute for Tele-Cooperation Technology
I4 Institute for Integrated Publication and Information Systems

Presently at least one integrated project is being set up in each of the research areas. This will concentrate on cooperation between the institutes and with persons or institutions outside, especially with industry. In future this will form the most important structural element of GMD's research and development work.

This concentration of effort is also being applied within the institutes in form of Pilot Projects. Precisely defined steps and milestones will determine the priorities of their research and development work. These projects will be representative of the work of each institute, and they will gain importance, especially with regard to the public recognition of their results.

The German Association of Informatics (GI)

Address:
Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.,
Godesberger Allee 99, D-53175 Bonn,
Telephone:
+49-228-376751
President:
Prof. Roland Vollmar

The Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) was founded 1969 in Bonn in order to promote informatics. The 17800 individual and 330 corporate members are coming from informatics research, -education, -industry and -applications and comprise also students in informatics.

Scientific work within GI is done by more than 100 Expert Committees, Special Interest groups and Working Groups. Those committees and groups are structured in nine divisions: Foundation of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence, Software Technology and Information Systems, Telematics and Computer Architecture, Information Technology and Technologial Applications, Informatics in Economy, Informatics in Law and Public Administration, Informatics in Education and Profession, Informatics and Society.

The 25 regional groups in Germany take care of members and interested people as far as professional and regional questions are concerned. The Deutsche Informatik Akademie, located in Bonn, initiated and mainly supported by GI, offers a high program of continued education for professionals in informatics throughout Germany.

Recently the International Conference and Research Center for Computer Science in Dagstuhl Castle has been founded. It is jointly supported by GI and the universities of Saarbrücken, Kaiserslautern and Karlsruhe. Financial support comes from the Saarland and Rheinland-Palatinate.

GI is member of the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) and of the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (CEPIS). GI has a seat in the council of the Werner-von-Siemens-Ring foundation and is member of the Deutscher-Verband-Technisch-Wissenschaftlicher-Vereine, which comprises all technological associations in Germany. Every two years GI awards the Konrad-Zuse-Medaille for outstanding contributions in Computer Science. The main organ of the GI is the scientific journal Informatik-Spektrum.

GI and GMD do not only arrange the Informatics Olympiad, but they are also responsible for the National Competition in informatics.

The National Competition (BWINF)

The Bundeswettbewerb Informatik (BWINF) was started in 1980. After three year of experimentation the competition was established in 1984 as a publicly sponsored school competition under the patronage of the Federal President, supported by the Federal Minister for Education and Science, and the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the German Länder by means of a cooperation contract between GI and GMD. These school contests were held as task-oriented performance competitions.

The purpose of the German informatics competitions is the academic encouragement of interested and talented pupils. It should motivate them to become involved with the subject matter and methods of informatics, the application of information processing systems and the resulting problems. In particular, the use of systematic and objective methods and the social relevance of these methods should be considered. In addition the competition should encourage better school education in informatics and attract public attention.

The competitions are characterised by the eight problems which are given each year in the first and second rounds. In the first round five generally understandable problems are given and circulated in September to all schools. A pupil must solve at least three of these problems to qualify for the second round. In the secound round three additional and more difficult problems are given. Participation is about 3000 pupils in the first round, 300 in the second round and 30 in the final third round from which the candidates for the International Olympiade are selected.

A book series Bundeswettbewerb-Informatik-Aufgaben-und-Lösungen edited by Peter Heyderhoff is published by Klett-Schulbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-12-7107501. Each volume contains the eight problems for a year and the problems of the IOI, with comprehensively documented solutions and educational comments.

The German Informatics Competition is organized, controlled and promoted by a coordination committee, a problem development panel and an organizing office with Dr. Peter Heyderhoff as Managing Director.

The National Committee (AKIOI)

The National Committee, the so-called "Arbeitskreis IOI" (AKIOI), was invited to its first meeting in March 1990. Its members were representatives of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of North Rhine Westphalia, of the Federal Ministry of Education and Science and of the Bundeswettbewerb Informatik. Chairman was Prof. Fritz Krückeberg.

The task of the National Committee was to develop the guidelines and general planning frame for the IOI'92 and to prepare its realisation.

1.6 The Scientific Structure

The International Jury

The International Jury was composed of the delegation leaders of all participating countries and the president, nominated by the country where the Olympiad took place. The Jury had its first meeting on the opening day of the Olympiad. The working language was English. The tasks of the Jury were as follows:

The President of the Jury

The President of the Jury, Prof. Peter Widmayer from the ETH Zürich, was nominated by the organizer.

His tasks were the following:

The President of the Jury was consulted and supported by the Chief Coordinator and the Managing Director of the IOI with whom he cooperated confidently.

The Scientific Committee

The Scientific Committee was composed of the Chief Coordinator and six members of the coordinating committee. It became active before the beginning of the Olympiad and had the task of selecting and preparing six problems from those that were submitted by the participating countries.

The Scientific Committee was nominated by the Chief Coordinator Dr. Hans-Werner Hein out of the circle of coordinators. With the help of the Chief Coordinator it prepared the selection of tasks for the IOI.

The Scientific Committee had the following tasks:

The Coordinating Committee

The Coordinating Committee consisted of coordinators and the Chief Coordinator. It had the task of examining and evaluating all solutions. The Coordinating Committee was composed of informatics experts from the host country, representing about half the number of participating teams. The Coordinating Committee was nominated by the host country. The coordinator responsible for the German team was elected by and from the members of the international jury.

25 coordinators nominated by the organizer had the following tasks:

Its tasks were the following:

The Chief Coordinator

The Chief Coordinator, Dr. Hans-Werner Hein from the University of Dortmund, was nominated by the organizer. The Chief Coordinator himself nominated the Scientific Committee out of the coordinators group.

His responsibilities included

The Chief Coordinator was consulted by the Managing Director of the IOI.

1.7 The Organisational Structure

Managing Director of IOI

The Managing Director of the IOI Dr. Peter Heyderhoff was responsible for the whole organisation of the IOI. He worked within the frame and guidelines planned, elaborated and given by the National Committee.

His tasks were

Chief Organizer

The Chief Organizer Günther Miklitz worked for half a year full time in this project and cooperated strongly with the Managing Director.

His tasks were:

Secretary

A foreign language secretary Christel Klein was engaged for the last half year before the olympiad. Her tasks were:

Assistant in the Convention Office

During the Olympic week four assistants formed the convention office and guaranted that the office was constantly occupied. Their tasks included

Chief Technician

The Chief Technician Franz Köpke was responsible to the Managing Director of the IOI'92 for the complete technical installation. The activities of the Chief Technician included:

Technicians for Supervision

Approximately 200 pupils of 50 nations were expected to participate in the competition. Each student should work on a computer. 23 students in informatics were needed for the technical installation and supervision. They formed the Technical Committee of the IOI.

All 200 computers had to be transported, unpacked, connected, installed, checked, supervised and loaded with the necessary system software.

The participants of the competition had to be instructed concerning the application.

During the competition the work of the participants had to be supervised. Participants of the competition and members of the jury had to be assisted when printing the programs.

After the competitions the software had to be deleted again, the computers had to be checked, removed, packed and transported.

Software Consultant

Expert Journalist

His task included presentating the IOI to the public. In detail, his tasks were the following:

Hostesses

For the reception and accompanying task 37 hostesses were engaged and formed the Reception Committee for the olympic week. The responsibilities of the hostesses included:

Sports Teachers

Three sports teachers were engaged during the olympic week. They had the following tasks:

Planning and leading of recreational activities. Didactic and methodical preparation by considering the international composition of groups and the program in total. Conversation in English.

The recreation program included: condition training with music, long-distance races, ball games (football, basketball, volleyball) and swimming.

Indoor gymnasions could be used depending on the weather.

Convention office

The convention hotel was the Gustav Stresemann Institute (GSI). The convention office was opened from 8:00 to 18:00 h. Computers, typewriters, copymachine, faxmachine and telephones were available.

Everyone wore identifying badges with the following coding:

	numbers (1..4)  = student,
	green dot       = team leader,
	white dot       = accompanying person,
	yellow dot      = hostess,
	blue dot        = coordinator,
	black dot       = technician,
	red dot	        = organizer,
	two dots        = chief,
	two red dots    = chief organizer,
	two green dots  = leader of the delegation.

1.8 Main Organisational Tasks

Once the National Committee for the Preparation of the IOI (AKIOI) had worked out and defined guidelines, the organizing office developed a plan for the way in which the organisational tasks were to be solved. This plan included suggestions to the personnel involved in the IOI, the financial management, the cultural activities during the competition week, the hosting of participants, the preparation of equipment and software, the graphics and some other aspects. After the National Committee had decided about the plan, which was done in four meetings prepared by the organizing office, the actual organizing of the IOI'92 started.

The organizing office benefitted from the valuable guidance of Prof. Fritz Krückeberg, chairman of the National Committee and institute manager at GMD, who excercised his role as supervisor in a friendly, committed and cooperative manner.

Financial Management

As early as 1989 Dr. Peter Heyderhoff, the Managing Director, submitted a detailed financial plan to the Federal Minister of Education and Science requesting the main financial support of the IOI'92. The answer was positive so that preparations could be started. The expenses of the IOI'92, calculated on the basis of the before mentioned financial plan went into the national annual budget, which was passed by Parliament in 1991.

In 1990 two leading firms of Germany's computer industry agreed to grant technical support by providing free of charge around 200 computers for a period of four weeks for the IOI'92.

Performing the administration of finances, the Managing Director cooperated with the GMD's department of finance, which provided accounting and cost control service. His secretary assisted him. The rest of the organizing staff were not involved in financial matters.

Personnel Management

Considering the various groups of people involved in organizing the IOI, the main problem was how to motivate and prepare everyone to accomplish his or her task. Dr. Peter Heyderhoff, the Managing Director, assigned each person his or her task and allowed the highest degree of individual responsibility. He therefore created an atmosphere of confidence and trust, and he assured an open flow of information.

While the members of the Coordinating and Scientific Committees were all teachers and scientists, who could be hired with their employers' consent, the organizing office had to rely on a large group of high school or university students who were given short term working contracts or who were remunerated on an hourly basis and according to commitment. That way many jobs were done by persons who had no professional qualifications. This explains a few shortcomings. But the organizers hope that the impression is true: the overall reaction to the organizers' performance on the principle of "by young people for young people" has been quite positive.

The amount of preparation work of the various groups with specific tasks is indicated by the following schedule:

January:
Nomination of the members of the Coordinating Committee. They were scientists of German universities and of GMD.
February:
Recruiting members of the Technical and Reception Committees, 30 members each.
May:
First meeting of the Scientific Committee.
June:
Preparatory Meeting with university students, hired to supervise the Reception Committee.
June:
Preparatory Meeting for the counsellors of the Technical Committee.
July:
Meetings of Reception Committee, Technical Committee and small group of teachers and entertainers.
July:
Meeting of the Coordinating Committee.

In addition, minor meetings were held with private sponsors and government representatives to prepare the opening and closing day activities, parts of the cultural program and to coordinate the acquisition of additional sponsorships.

Hosting of Teams and Guests

By May 16, 1992, 177 students, 92 delegation leaders and their deputies as well as 23 accompanying persons had registered. The number of registrations was much larger than expected, considering that in the previous competition in Greece the number of participating teams had amounted to 23.

Hotel Room Capacity

One year before IOI'92, when the hotel reservations had to be made, nobody had been able to make reservations for these unexpectedly large numbers. Finally, the Gustav Stresemann Institute helped by offering extra room capacity. Still in the need of more rooms, the necessary reservations could be made in two hotels in Bad Godesberg. Luckily, all national delegations and some extra official guests could be accommodated in the Gustav Stresemann Institute. Only guests who were staying at their own expenses, according to the government invitation, had to be put up in the two extra hotels. The reservations made in these hotels served also as extra room capacity for unexpected guests. This precaution proved to be right, because some guests who had not registered, did arrive.

As far as the hotel room booking is concerned, it is worth mentioning that the organizing office allocated the rooms to the individual guests, thanks to the computer equipment and software (Paradox, version 4) used by the office. The hotels could then be given a complete room booking plan.

Welcoming Participants and Guests

Upon arrival, each participant received free of charge a rucksack with information material, a ten day pass on the public transport system of the city of Bonn, a telephone card for free telephone calls worth 12,- DM, and 50,- DM in cash as pocket mone

In order to make it easier for our international guests to move around, to see things and to meet people, a group of about 30 girls from the Clara Schumann Grammar School in Bonn had volunteered to form a Reception Committee and to organize an escort service. Each delegation was greeted at the airport or at the railway station by two of these girls who then showed them the way to the hotel. During the competition week and in some of the cultural programs they were committed to doing small organisational and informational jobs.

Security and Insurance

Arrangements were made to guarantee the security of all participants and guests during the competition week. The local fire department sent a unit for the opening and closing ceremonies at Schloß Birlinghoven. The police were informed of all events. A health insurance was purchased to cover possible medical bills.

Transportation

As said before, all participants were given free passes for the bus tram and underground system within the city of Bonn. The sponsorship of this as well as of parts of the cultural program was by the City of Bonn, which collaborated in a very friendly manner.

Another transportation task was the hiring of buses for the various trips during the competition week. Since it was not certain how many people would participate in the different cultural activities offered, due to options offered by the program, bus capacity had to be estimated. The private transportation company helped at short notice to provide the capacity actually needed.

Information Brochures

Two information brochures were produced by the organizing office: one in English, slim and handy which included the official program, and the other in German and English, in a larger format, with a collection of articles about informatics in Germany.

First and Second Announcement

Prior to these publications, two information papers were prepared, the first and the second announcement and call for participation. These papers were circulated world wide through Germany's Foreign Office. The second announcement contained the regulations for the IOI'92. It was drafted by a group of government experts in the field of education (representatives of the Federal Government and of the State Governments of Germany).

Later, at the meeting of the International Committee on 27th October 1991 in Bonn, the paper "Preliminary Regulations" was accepted, following the basic outlines of the draft paper (see report of the Meeting of the International Committee, chapter 1.9). The organizing office provided its secretarial assistance service.

Program Brochure

A program brochure in English was given to each participant. It contained the following information:

"Informatics in Germany"

The National Committee and the organizing office felt that more information than could be presented in the program brochure should be given about the host of the IOI'92. That is why the 60 page brochure "Informatics in Germany" was published. It consisted of two parts, one in English, the other in German, each containing

Graphic Design

The unified appearance of publications before, during, and after the competition was assured by the work of a professional graphic design company. In two working sessions and in many telephone calls between the organizing office and the company the following designing tasks were done:

Rooms and Equipment

The organizing office assumed that at the most 180 students would be in the competition. In case of breakdown additional machines were to be held in reserve. It was clear from the beginning that only large companies would be able to provide the necessary number of personal computers. IBM and Siemens-Nixdorf had agreed to support the IOI'92. They were willing to provide free of charge 95 personal computers (transportation costs included) and 5 printers each. After the technical aspects (electric power supply, electric sockets per room etc.) of how 190 PCs and 10 printers could be set up in the Gustav Stresemann Institute, the Technical Committee managed to unpack the machines and get them working in two days.

For future reference it may be of interest to know how many computers were set up per room and the room sizes; there were six rooms available and the computer placement was as follows:

	Room No		Room size	Computers

S 1-2 97 qm 36 S 5-6 226 qm 82 S 7 36 qm 13 S 8 34 qm 12 S 9-11 73 qm 26 S 10 29 qm 10

It may also be interesting to know what kind of equipment problems had to be solved. The following excerpt from a check list will give a good illustration:

The Technical Committee did a remarkable job. During and after the competition a number of knowledgable persons observed that a private company with professional computer technicians would have had trouble if asked to perform the same tasks in the same time and with the same dedication and with the same excellent results.

1.9 Preparational Events

Meetings of the National Committee

Five meetings of the National Committee were held between 1 March 1990 and 17 March 1992.

Members of the National Committee were:

In the meetings numerous guidelines were developed and many activities planed. The experiences of the IOI's in Bulgaria, Bellorussia and Greece gave important orientation. The main objective was to find the right balance between cordial hospitality with an interesting cultural program and a scientifically based and well organized competition.

Meeting of the International Committee

held from October 27 - 30, 1991 in Bonn

Members of the International Committee:

1. Peter Heyderhoff opened the meeting and welcomed the participants. He introduced the following guests:

He proposed an agenda, which was accepted.

On his initiative the International Committee (I.C.) agreed to thank the Greek government for all its efforts, support and hospitality in the IOI'91.

2. Christos Kilias gave a detailed report of the organisational and financial aspects of the IOI'91. The total cost amounted to 12 million drachm - salaries for personnel not included.

As to the countries which received invitations, he pointed out that all countries with embassies in Greece were invited. He suggested that in order to be able to calculate with stable figures, new countries should be invited to participate for the first time as observers only.

3. Peter Heyderhoff gave a report of the preparations for the IOI 1992 in Bonn. He pointed out that the funding had been secured thanks to corresponding efforts by the Federal Ministry of Education and Science and by the Ministry of Education of the Land North Rhine Westphalia. He also explained the various activities planned for the Olympiad. On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Education and Science, Dr. Tilgner reported briefly on the procedure of officially inviting countries to participate. The IC welcomed the program as presented. It made a few suggestions to organisational details.

4. The paper "Announcement and Preliminary Regulations" was discussed and accepted with minor changes:

5. Hans-Werner Hein presented the paper "Evaluation and Arbitration", which was accepted. In its discussion, the IC agreed on the following points: 6. After a discussion of aspects of an exhibition of didactic and advertising materials that have been used in national competitions, the IC agreed on the following: 7. Recommendations for organizing and preparing the IOI'92 were welcomed by the organizers.

8. Ries Kock gave a report on plans for setting up an olympic information centre in the Netherlands. The information centre may function as an e-mail box and distribute didactic material for IOI training.

9. The report of preparations for the 5th Olympiad in Argentina was postponed. It was suggested that the organisation of a group flight from Europe to Argentina should be considered in order to profit from low charter flight rates. There should be an e-mail discussion of details.

10. Ries Kock and Yngve Lindberg reported on their preparations for hosting the Olympiad in their countries. In the Netherlands the government was willing to take a decision by end of November 1991. In Sweden no problem should arise for organizing the Olympiad in 1994. Hungary may be able to organize the Olympiad in 1996. It would then coincide with the country's 1000th anniversary.

The IC drafted the following plan for countries to host future Olympiads:

a) Countries hosting future olympiads:
Germany (1992), Argentina (1993), Sweden (1994), Netherlands (1995), Hungary (1996).

b) List of countries that may want to consider hosting the Olympiad:
China, South Korea, Thailand, Italy, Austria, Germany (in 2000)

The IC asked Peter Heyderhoff as president of the IC and Fritz Krückeberg as representative of the "Bundeswettbewerb Informatik" and chairman of the National Committee of the IOI'92 to write letters to the governments of Sweden, Netherlands and Hungary in order to request their agreement in organizing an Olympiad.

11. Tom van Weert reported on the cooperation with UNESCO/IIP and IFIP TC3 on education. He proposed the following points:

There could be

After a discussion of these proposals the IC decided the following: 12. During discussions on future developments of the IOI particular attention should be given to the following areas: The IC called upon its members to present ideas for team work problems at the next IOI in Bonn. Argentina is expected to present a team work problem which should be given outside the official competition to the participants of the Olympiad.

13. In a final discussion, the IC accepted the paper "Guidelines for Future Olympiads in Informatics".

The President thanked all participants for their committed and fruitful collaboration and closed the meeting.

Meetings of the Scientific Committee

The working style of the Scientific Committee was mainly based on communication by electronic mail, letters, and telephone. So only two plenum meetings on May, 20th and June, 12th were necessary to discuss some more general problems and make final decisions. The main topics and results of these meetings were: The Scientific Committee expected thus, that in the second evaluation phase all spare time and mental effort could be fairly distributed to those few cases where team leader and evaluator could not agree so far. Overall the team leaders should have the chance to prepare themselves by interviewing their students and by studying the solution programs before meeting again any evaluator. This would make the discussion much more technically oriented, and the team leaders would be able to guide the evaluators quicker to the point why their credit claims might be reasonable (whitebox evaluation with expert).

Youth Meeting with the President

The tradidional youth meeting with the President of the Federal Republic of Germany took place in Schloß Bellevue, in Berlin, on 12th June 1992. All national competitions for school students with their winners were invited. The "Bundeswettbewerb Informatik" took this opportunity to inform President Richard von Weizsäcker about the International Olympiad in Informatics (see pictures).

1.10 Carrying out the IOI

The Invitation

The German Foreign Office submitted through its embassies an official invitation letter dated 11th of November 1991 to the governments of the following countries:

Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Brunei, Belorussia, Canada, China, Columbia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabun, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunesia, Turkey, Soviet Union (Russia), Ukraine, United States, United Kingdom, Viet Nam, West Africa, Zimbabwe.

The Response

By the 13th March 1992 48 applications were sent to the organizing office. The following twenty countries either gave negative respondes or failed to reply:

Austria, Bahrain, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Cuba, Denmark, France, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, West Africa.

The Arrival Day

56 delegations had registered for IOI'92 and their arrival was expected. Some arrived one or two days before the official IOI'92 week. The delegations were received and escorted by a hostess reception service. By the afternoon of Sunday the 12th July, 44 delegations had checked in. The following teams did not arrive as planned and were expected:
	 1. Colombia	3 persons
	 2. Gabon	6 persons
	 3. Kuwait	6 persons
	 4. Morocco	1 person
	 5. Mongolia	6 persons
	 6. Nigeria	1 person
and according to their application the following teams are expected later:
	 7. Algeria	6 persons
	 8. Argentina	1 person
	 9. Bulgara	6 persons
	10. China	1 person
	11. Viet Nam	6 persons
During the arrival day there had been many opportunities for personal contact and for exploring the surroundings of the convention hotel. In the nearby parc (Rheinaue) there was a big open-air folk festival. In the hotel, the Siemens Corporation showed an exhibition about the use of computers as a help for handicaped people. IBM presented a colourful globe clock with worldtime information. The IOI announced that an exhibition of posters of participating countries was being prepared. The computing room was open so that every participant was able to get aquainted with the equipment.

Poster Session

We had announced an exhibition of didactic material and of information with reference to national contests, selection procedure and training for the olympiad. Many countries contributed and exhibited their material in our exhibition hall. Especially on the first day it was exciting to see the poster exhibition grow by each arriving contribution. Material from the following list was shown:

Opening Religious Service

The first official event of the olympic program was a Common Prayer on Sunday, the arrival day, at 19:00 h. Everybody was warmly invited. This Common Prayer was prepared by young Christians: a prayer group and a music group. It was clearly announced that this common prayer would be religion independent. Therefore there was no sermon or teaching or special ceremony so that people of various denominations and religions could feel comfortable.

This Common Prayer was conducted by a young teacher Dr. Uli Drescher and by Gaby Heyderhoff with her worship music team. International well known hymns were presented with guitare, flute, violin and percussion instruments. Short readings from the Bible in many languages, prayers, thanksgiving and periods of silent prayer constituted this act of common prayer. A majority of those who had already arrived attended this service and were impressed by its dignity.

The Heilig Kreuz Church, the place for this Common Prayer, was opened for the whole week for everybody's silent worship.

Opening Ceremony

Opening Ceremony
at Schloß Birlinghoven, 13th July 1992

11:00h
Concert Music
C.-W. Gluck (1714-1787): Ballettmusik aus Don Juan
11:10h
Welcome Greetings
Prof. Fritz Krückeberg
Chairman of the National Committee of the
International Olympiad in Informatics 1992
11:15h
Speech
Prof. Dennis Tsichritzis
Chairman of the Board of Directors of the GMD (German National Research Centre for Informatics and Information Technology)
11:35h
Introductory Remarks by the Jury
Prof. Peter Widmayer
President of the Jury
11.50h
Introduction to the Olympic Program
Dr. Peter Heyderhoff
Managing Director of IOI'92

Remarks on the GMD's Presentation
Program in the afternoon

12:05h
Concert Music
Kurt Schwaen (1909): Tänzerische Imprssionen
12:10h
Walk in the Gardens
12:30h
Lunch on the Terrace

(Music by Winners of the German National Competition "Jugend musiziert" (Youth Music Festival))
Youth Ensemble Vivaldi from Bottrop:
Ulrike Sawicki (Mandoline), Silke Müller (Mandoline), Anke Naujokat (Mandola), Birgit Schwab(Gitarre), Anke Göntgen (Kontrabaß)

Opening Speeches

Prof. Fritz Krückeberg, Chairman of the National Committee

"Ladies and Gentlemen,students and guests from 47 countries from all over the world, head of delegations from more than 50 countries, representatives of IFIP and UNESCO, may I on behalf of the National Committee welcome you all to this Fourth International Olympiad in Informatics here in Germany.

I welcome also representatives from embassies, government institutions, science and research institutions; our olympiad staff and all our assistents.

We remember with pleasure the Third Olympiad in Informatics which we experienced a year ago in Greece, in Athens and Anavyssos. For this brilliantly organized olympiad and for the heartly welcome which we received, we thank the Greek government and Professor Christos Kilias and his organizing team.

We wish all participants and guests of the Olympiad a pleasant and culturally inspiring stay in Germany and a peaceful sporting competition. Personal contacts are equally important for the success of the competition. Friendship starts and grows in the hearts of young people.

The Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker as patron of the organizers greets all participants and wishes the olympiad in Bonn every success and interesting comparisons.

Herewith I declare the Fourth International Olympiad in Informatics as opened."

Prof. Dennis Tsichritzis, Director of GMD

"Meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren,

als Vorstandsvorsitzender der GMD sollte ich Sie in deutsch begrüßen. Je suis aussi un professeur à l'Université de Genève et je pouvais aussi vous saluer en francais, ... But I will break all protocols and will talk to you directly in English because this is the language you understand best. I was asked to make a short speech and I had the choice, I could talk about the olympic spirit, I could talk about GMD which is the host organisation and I could talk about Schloß Birlinghoven because, after all, my office is in this building. I will not follow these instructions. As far as the olympic spirit is concerned, as a Greek I should know a lot about it, since the olympic idea was started in ancient Greece. But I really believe that all great ideas don't belong to one country, they belong to the whole world, so anybody could talk about the olympic idea as well as a Greek. The second topic about GMD and about this building: GMD is a large federal research laboratory of the German government. We have about 1,400 people. There are about 800 in this area, 300 in Berlin and 300 in Darmstadt. We are doing research and development in information technology. I will not go into details about the projects we have. Somebody asked me whether this is our largest room that you could fit in and I said probably not, but it's the nicest and if you look around you're surrounded by European culture. Almost all the paintings you see and the fire places and the works of art are originals. A lot of them don't come from Germany, they come from other places in Europe, they come from Italy, they come from France, etc.

As you're studying modern technology you should contemplate also what ancient technology was all about. So finally I'll spend the most of my time on informatics. You could describe the evolution of this area in four words: computation, information, communication and imagination.

The first computers, as the name actually implies, were mainly for computation. Computation was an old dream that many scientists and mathematicians had over the centuries. They wanted a mechanical way to compute. They wanted to think, they didn't want to waste their time in computation. The old computing machines and especially the new computers can perform very many computations. But as time went by computers were not mainly used for computation. Even small calculators, that most of you already have, exhaust all your needs for computation. Very few people need more computation than these small calculators provide. Although for specialized cases you need very large computers to do computation, most of the computers most of the time don't compute. They do other things.

The second word explains a little bit more what computers were doing after computation. They were dealing with information. Take as an example an airline reservation system. You walk in and you reserve a seat. And believe me, there is usually a very large system which does that for you. When you think about the computation that has to be effected, it's not very sophisticated, all you have to do is subtract 1 from a number which is not more than 300. There are that many seats and you have to take one. And then you have to scratch your head and ask what do these big computers do the rest of the time. They deal mainly with information. And a lot of the cycles of computers the world over are mainly for transaction oriented database systems which deal with information in general.

One could stop here but I think that we have a brighter future. I consider that communication is probably even more important than information. People are overloaded with information. I mean it's just too much and most people cannot really absorb it. There are a lot of external databases. There is a lot of information floating around. In large organisations the problem is not to have access to information. The problem is that you have too much. You have different systems and they tell you to do different things. But there is one area that still is not exhausted and that is the need for communication. Communication was originally completely independent from computers, mainly based on telephones.

When people think about communication they think about wires, they think about telephones and about television. There are two things that are happening which are extremely important. The first is that the raw technology for information systems and the raw technology for communication systems is exactly the same. You may not know it, but if you look at the value of a very large telephone system, most of it is in software, it is just programs. As time goes on, especially with new wide band networks, we replace copper with fibre optics and get a lot of bandwidth, but we still have to deal with communication. There is a huge application area coming. Many people are willing to invest not only their money but their time in communication. Most of the people who today study informatics may work tomorrow in the communication area and not in the informatics area.

For your age it's not important what people do now and it's not important what people would do in a few years from now. It's very important what people would do in ten years from now. More than that I just can't predict.

The fourth word that I would like to leave with you is imagination. You may ask in what way computers can deal with imagination. A new area of multimedia and visualisation is coming, where computers play a very large role. High definition television has as many chips as a computer. With the help of computer systems - and perhaps you get a chance to see some of them here - you can visualize things. Pretty soon you will be able to use computers in a very similar way, just as artists worked when doing these ancient paintings. They saw something and they painted it. Now what you can do is you can see something and you cannot only capture it but you can compose it using computers. If you go one step further then you don't have to see something. You can imagine, you can describe it properly and you can see it in terms of multimedia systems. That is extremely important.

People come and go. They imagine a lot of things during their life time and there is no way that they can leave for other people what they have imagined. I would have loved to see some of the things that some of the famous or perhaps not so famous people have imagined. I would have liked to see what one of these artists who painted one of these paintings in this Großer Saal had imagined. I think our technology will give you that capability. In your life time, not only you will see it, but you will probably use it. Thank you."

Prof. Peter Widmayer, President of the Jury

"Welcome everybody to this olympiad! As president of the jury, I am responsible for the jury to operate correctly. I will make sure that your work is properly appreciated, that the evaluation of your work is just and fair. The rules for this evaluation come from many years of experience of international and national committees and individuals; I can assure you that they have proven to be good rules.

Before getting to the evaluation of your work, let me first briefly describe to you what your work consists of, that is, how you should perform your task. This olympiad deals with algorithmic problems that you should be solving in the next few days. To do so, each of you has a problem that is not exactly algorithmic, but similar, namely to win a medal (gold if possible). Naturally, there is no problem if you do not win a gold medal, since the main thing is to participate in this competition. Let me tell you anyway how to win a gold medal, just in case you want to try.

Problem:
How to get a medal (gold if possible) in this olympiad ?

Let me extract the part of the solution that can be described algorithmically; for most of you, this must look very simple:

Solution:

program olympiad 1992;
begin
	solve problem 1;
	solve problem 2;
	if you are clever and lucky
		then get medal
		else don't worry, be happy
end.

As in every programming task, the question is now to refine that program and specify the subtasks in more detail. I will - again algorithmically - describe how to solve problem i, for i from 1 to 2.

Procedure solve problem (i: 1..2);
begin
	get text of problem i and read it;
	if you have a question within 1/2 h
		then ask;
	repeat
		think
	until a good idea comes to mind
		or timeout;
	develop an algorithm;
	write a program and debug it;
	describe the solution;
	wait for the coordinator
end;

You will get the problem text in the morning of the day in which you have to solve the problem; the first problem text will be given to you at 10:00 h on Wednesday, the second problem text at 10:00 h on Friday. Like in many algorithms and programs, this problem solving procedure contains one main loop that consumes most of the computation time: You think. You think and you think and you think, and since the timeout is only after five hours, you will probably exit the loop by having some good idea. So, wishful thinking, let's assume some good idea comes to your mind rather quickly. What do you do next? You think through the idea once again, you describe it, you write it down on paper, and you try to find an algorithm accordingly; this is the essence of the whole story. As soon as you are convinced that this is the way to go, you write a program, you type it into the computer, you run it, and you debug it. And then you will probably just have to sit there and wait for the remaining few hours, until it is 15:00 h and somebody comes and picks up your solution.

Precisely at 15:00 h, you are required to switch off the computer. That's important. If you don't obey this rule, you will be disqualified. Some time after 15:00 h, somebody (we call him a coordinator) will come and ask you to deliver a floppydisk, with your program on it, and a paper description of your solution. Your team leader will be with the coordinator in picking up your solution. Those two people will run your program on the spot, while you are there. So, if anything needs to be asked, they can ask you directly - things like what should I type here, why is this dialogue so strange?". You will be there and you can inform them whenever they have difficulties with your program. Then they go away, and you go away.

For you, the day's work is done, but for those coordinators, the work goes on. Who are these people, by the way? They are computer scientists, from Germany mainly, scientists involved in algorithms, in programming, and with lots of contacts with people that also program. They have seen beforehand the algorithmic problem that you solved in the competition, and they have studied it in depth. They will be able to look at your solution and see immediately what you have done. Nevertheless, to be as efficient as possible, in a first step the coordinators will go through your solution very quickly and judge it mainly in terms of what your program produces for a large set of test data. They will run your program with a large set of test data, and they will write a protocol of what comes out. If your team leader and your coordinator agree in this first step on the quality of your program - let's say, your program is perfect in all aspects, for example - then there will not be any discussion on your program any more. In general, you will receive some percentage of the full share of points for specified subproblems that you solved; for instance, for reading the problem text, you might get 25 % of all points, and for waiting for the coordinator you might get 1 % of the points, just to give an example.

Nevertheless, there may be cases where your team leader and your coordinator do not agree on the sum of these percentage points for your program. They may have different opinions on how your program performed. In that case, in order to make the evaluation really just and fair, there will be a second round of evaluation. A number of additional experts will look in detail at your program, as well as your team leader and your coordinator. They will try to find out the ideas that are in your program, to get hold of what is in the program, but cannot be deduced from the output necessarily. And I firmly believe that this group of experts will reach a conclusion in almost all cases. If they still don't agree, they will ask the Chief Coordinator, and if this larger group of people still does not agree, then there is the jury. The jury needs to decide on these doubtful cases. As president of the jury, my responsibility is to guarantee absolutely that the jury takes the correct decision in these cases.

Of course, I can never even get close to such a guarantee, but I promise you that I will do my best to make sure that the jury arrives at a correct decision. If anything goes wrong, if you feel the things are not as they should be, you should come to me and hold me responsible, shout at me and ask me what has happened. In 99 % of the cases, I'm afraid, I won't be able to respond. But I will be happy if there is a case in which I can respond, and then I will.

I think these are the main rules that you need to observe. Your team leaders will inform you once again about them in great detail. All the team leaders are members of the jury, and all the deputy team leaders, even though they are not members of the jury, are invited to come to all jury meetings to advice the team leaders. The first jury meeting will be held today in this room at 16:00 h. This first meeting is for the jury to discuss and agree on the regulations again in detail. Then you have the full Tuesday to inquire the team leaders about all things that have been discussed. On Wednesday, you will enter the first round of the competition, for which I wish you all the success in getting a gold medal. Thank you."

Dr. Peter Heyderhoff, Managing Director IOI'92

"Dear Participants of this Olympiad.

The Fourth International Olympiad in Informatics has just been opened, the official signal for starting the "games" has been given and you have been informed of the rules for the competition. At this point the competition days on Wednesday and Friday are probably your main concern. Taking this into account when planning the program, we kept the first two days of the week free for other activities. Anyone with the experience of an intercontinantal flight knows what it is like to cope with the time lag: Many of you will feel the typical fatigue due to the time diffenrence between here and your home country. Many new impressions of Germany as a foreign country to you will add to this. We know that it takes some time to adjust. We hope that our program, which everybody should carry around at all times for quick reference, will help you to enjoy your stay in Germany. Let us take a look for a few comments.

On the first day of the olympiad and right after this assembly we shall have a buffet lunch here in the castle hall. Actually I should use the German word "Schloß" for castle because some British friends have told me that this building of the turn of the century should be referred to as a Manor House and not as a castle. Since we call it a "Schloß" I like the word castle better.

In the afternoon you will be invited by the Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (GMD) - The German National Research Centre for Informatics and Information Technology - to have a look at some parts of its scientific work. Thanks to special preparations by my colleagues here at GMD there will be eight scientific and technological exhibits. Three lectures accompanying the presentations will be held in the Red Chamber, the room adjacent to this hall where some of the audience are presently watching us on a television screen because we could not fit everybody in here.

We have prepared a list of eight GMD presentations which you can pick up in the lobby as you leave the castle. The GMD presentations which comprise the following:

The German telecommunications company is present with a special exhibit of its own.

Tonight at six o'clock dinner will be served in the GMD restaurant facing the castle 300 meters down the park. At seven o clock we shall be back here in the castle for a party with dixieland music and barrels of draft beer.

Tomorrow we shall go by bus to the city of Düsseldorf which is the capital of the state of North Rhine Westphalia the biggest of 16 states that make up the Federal Republic of Germany. We shall visit the seat of parliament and the city.

Please note that we are offering sports in the evening. Not only on Tuesday evening but four more times. Three sports teachers will be in charge of this. Ball games and gymnastics with music are on the program. You are invited to participate and to make personal suggestions to the program.

On Wednesday, the first competition day you will concentrate fully on your work. A German television team has announced that it would like to shoot some scenes. I hope you will allow this. We will make sure that there will be no annoying disturbances during the contest.

From many foreign friends we know that a visit to Germany should include a visit to Heidelberg which is ao well known for its charm as an old university city, for its romantic period in philosophy, for its training of students from all over the world, many of whom became famous as scholars, scientists or politicians. The publishing house Springer Verlag - known for its scientific publications - is sponsoring your day in Heidelberg and you will be given a lecture on hypermedia techniques. Visual presentations will make this attractive and easy to understand. We will go to Heidelberg by airconditioned bus. It is a three hour ride. In the evening we plan to be back home in time so that you will be able to get a good rest for the second part of the competition on Friday.

Friday night we are offering a babecue grill in the Gustav-Stresemann-House -providing the wheather will permit this.

On Saturday we will go on another bus trip to Cologne - only half an hour away from Bonn. You will be taken on a guided tour in the famous cathedral of Cologne. There will be tour guides in five languages.

For the afternoon we have scheduled a visit to a small Hollywood world - the studios of Germany's biggest television station - WDR. The Saturday excursions as well as the trip to Düsseldorf on Tuesday have been sponsored by the state government of North Rhine Westphalia.

On Sunday morning you can either attend religious services or go on a guided sight-seeing tour in Bonn where you will visit Beethoven's birth house. In the afternoon you can either do what you please or join us for a hike in the seven mountains near the Rhine with a visit of Adenauer's house. Adenauer was the first chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. We shall go back to Bonn by boat. You may enjoy the evening in the city or may walk directly back to the hotel.

On Monday, the last day of the olympiad, we shall have a prize awarding ceremony here in this hall. Professor Rainer Ortleb, the Minister of Education and Science of the Federal Republic of Germany, and Hans Schwier, the Minister of Education, Culture and Sports of North Rhine Westphalia, will be present and will speak to you. We are very glad that our international informatics contest is getting so much attention and that such high ranking personallities will honour our competition with their presence.

From my point of view as Managing Director I should like to add the following observations: Our competition has won the special attention of political leaders in education and science as well as of some leaders in business. Consequently it has been funded by the Federal Minister of Education and Science with the support of the Ministers of Cultural Affairs in the Länder. This entailed that quite a few expert activities on the part of government institutions were involved - from the federal to the community level we found friendly understanding and support in the course of our preparations. A considerable number of government experts in education were committed to make sure that our olympiad could get under way and be organized. But we received much support from private industry. Without the help of our two main sponsors we would not have been able to provide so many computers for the competition. We are very thankful for this and we owe special thanks to the helpful assistance of the two companies' personnel engaged in our preparations.

We are also thankful for the generous support of many sponsors. Their names can be found in a list at the end of our program brochure, and an updated list will be prepared for the press.

Let me add a final remark to the organisational part of the competition. There was a lot of cooperation and moral support from my dear colleagues in 55 countries world wide. With many of you we had very practical and direct correspondence per electronic mail. The set of sample problems and the provisionary regulations we had prepared went around the globe in seconds. On the other end of the line my colleagues from abroad did their bit. I know of quite a few struggles you had in order to get the participation of your national team through: solving funding and all kinds of organisational problems. In many cases where we had no e-mail contact our correspondence went the classic way and per fax machine. I thank you all, my dear colleagues, for your great efforts and for the trouble you and the informatics friends in your countries have taken to enable your students and you to come here to Germany. You and your teams have all contributed very much to making this event the biggest in the short history of our olympiad.

In our understanding of the purpose of all organising efforts before and during the olympiad the following all stands out: Let us work in the right spirit for bringing ever more highly talented young people, teachers and experts in informatics together so that we can exchange views, learn from each other and become friends. If it is true that informatics is a key science - and we do not doubt this - then we have the key for making the exchange of information world wide ever more an instrument of true communication and friendship. Our expertise in computer programming and computer science shall put us on the active side of peacemakers in this world.

Also on behalf of the whole organizing crew of this informatics olympiad I wish you a very successful, enjoyable and memorable olympic week."

Press Conference

Just before the beginning of the opening ceremony on 13 July 1992 at 10.00 h an international press conference was held at Schloss Birlinghoven. It was prepared by the IOI's public relations expert Mr. G. Hartmut Altenmüller. Television and broadcasting corporations as well as newspapers attended and reported about the start of the IOI'92 and the opening ceremony.

Meetings of the International Jury

According to the regulations of this olympiad, the international jury met during the olympic week to decide on a number of topics. In its first meeting, the jury elected the team leader from Argentina, Alicia Banuelos, as its vice president. It elected the team leaders from Turkey and Argentina to be the coordinators for the German participants. It confirmed the general spirit and the details of the rules and regulations. This included a confirmation of the way to isolate the jury meetings in which the programming problems had to be selected on the competition days, as well as the procedure and the schedule for collecting the students' solutions in the afternoon of the competition days. The jury confirmed the admission regulations for students, and it decided to enforce the regulations by checking students passports for their age.

On the competition days, Wednesday and Friday, the jury met from 6:00 h to 11:00 h, in order to select one out of three possible programming problems for each of those two days. This decision was supported by the Chief Coordinator's presentation of ways to solve the problems, including example programs. It took the jury from one to two hours to reach its decision. After the decision, each team leader and deputy team leader translated the problem formulation into the mother tongue of the home country. After the beginning of the competition, from 10:00 h onwards, the jury was available for another hour in order to respond to questions posed by the participants.

In the final meeting, the jury agreed on how to award medals to participants.

A number of other points of general interest were discussed in the jury meetings and were given as recommendations to the International Committee. All these recommendations were discussed and adopted in the International Committee. They are reflected in chapter 2 of this report. In particular the jury made suggestions on

Meetings of the Coordinating Committee

At July 3rd, 1992, the Coordinating Committee had a preparational meeting at GMD, Sankt Augustin. Fritz Krückeberg welcomed the committee as chairman of the National Committee. Peter Heyderhoff, Managing Director of the IOI'92, answered all questions of general and organisational types. Chief Coordinator Hans-Werner Hein introduced to the planned contest day schedules, the contest task structure, and the evaluation strategy. The following discussion established valuable feedback for the Scientific Committee. The spare time of that meeting was spent on the topics of software installation principles, the contest programming languages, MS-DOS, and the computer systems hardware.

At the two contest days the Coordinating Committee gathered at 13:00 for a plenary meeting. The task chosen in the morning by the Jury was introduced and discussed, the scoring and evaluation procedure called to mind. The first evaluation phase then started after 15:00. Later on that days the Coordinating Committee met again to exchange experiences, file and sort the intermediate results, and prepare for the second evaluation phase (which started late in the same evening).

The Competition Days

All delegation leaders and deputy leaders (called the jury) gathered together at 6:00 am on the Wednesday morning to begin the careful selection of the first contest problem. Each team leader had already submitted two problems for possible use in the contest. These problems had been examined by the Scientific Committee made up of computer science professionals from the host country. They tested the problems and selected two sets of three problems each - one set for each of the two contest days. After reading the three problems and discussing their merits, the jury selected by vote the first problem of the competition.

English was the official language of the competition. However, each student had to be able to read the problem in his/her native language. So, once the problem was selected, the team leaders and deputy team leaders from non-English speaking countries began translating the problem. There were approximately 35 different native languages represented. Everything stayed on schedule, and by 10:00 am the contest was ready to begin. Each participant had his/her own computer supplied by IBM or Siemens, with Turbo Pascal, Turbo C, QuickBasic, and Logo already installed. Nearly 200 identical systems were spread out in six different rooms. Now, each student had exactly five hours to solve the first problem. During the first half hour a participant could ask the jury in writing about the text of the problem. Only questions that could be answered with "Yes"/"No" or "No comment" were accepted. The answers were given as soon as possible. On the first competition day five technical problems with computers appeared, four of them necessitating a student's shift to a spare computer system. Each shift required less than 10 minutes. According to Murphy's law two of the shifts happened to the same student, but fortunately she took it very professional. All concerned students received a 10 minute time bonus per shift for compensation. No relevant software losses were reported.

At precisely 3:00 pm all computers were turned off, and students handed in diskettes at the door containing copies of their programs. The contestants filed out of the rooms with looks of amusement, amazement, bewilderment, pain, and relief. Each student had an appointed time to return with his/her team leader and they would meet with a coordinator supplied by Germany at this time to evaluate the students solution and award points. Each coordinator had a score sheet and a disk of files to run against the program. On this first review the source code was not examined - only the output of the program. Points were awarded for a list of eight items, including: does it display input data properly? does it write the solution to the output file? does it construct all possible solutions? were the technical constraints completely obeyed? A perfect score was 100. During this checking, all required tests had be run and a written report was signed by each coordinator and the team leader. Each participant's program was copied on two diskettes and the corresponding description, if any, was collected. The coordinator and the team leader each kept one copy of the diskettes. Printouts were produced by the coordinator and then given to the team leader.

So the team leader and the coordinator together examined each solution and agreed on a preliminary evaluation. By moderating the solution in the Coordinating Committee a just and balanced evaluation was achieved.

It took several hours to examine all 170 programs, signaling the end of the first day of the competition. The jury, which was the final arbiter in all disputes over scoring, met late into the evening to review the results and handle any complaints. There was one misinterpretation by several students on how to handle input data that was out of bounds. The Scientific Committee agreed to change their initial position on this point, since what the students had done in this case was what many of us would also have done. This demonstrates that even as carefully reviewed as this problem had been, it is difficult to state a problem that is completely free of ambiguity.

In the second evaluation phase all cases in which evaluators and team leaders disagreed, were analysed by "looking to the code". The team leader played the role of trying to prove that the solution was fully or partially ok, the evaluator played the questioner role. The team leader's ability to discuss the problem with their student, and read and understand that single program carefully in advance was used efficiently for a fair evaluation. So very few cases remained to be decided by the Chief Coordinator in a third evaluation step. After the second step of the first competition day the team leaders received the evaluation results together with the following letter:

Dear Teamleader and Member of the Jury:

With this note you receive the results of the IOI'92 after the second evaluation phase. Though the first evaluation phase was somewhat formal and "quick and dirty", it resulted in very valuable written information (independent from the coordinators personalities) about: program parts that obviously were correct, and teamleader's opinions to some necessarily ambigious parts of the natural language task text. Last night and today we executed the second evaluation phase:

The results for your team you have now in hand and the Coordinating Committee of the IOI'92 hopes that you will agree with its proposal. So far we thank you very much for cooperation, helpful critique and comments. In case you still disagree, please contact me personally as soon as possible, so we can finish the evaluation together.

Very sincerely yours Hans-Werner Hein.

The same procedure was followed on the second day of competition. Finally the Chief Coordinator presented the results in form of an anonymized sorted list to the Jury, who made the final decision. The jury determined the minimum scores for the first, second and third prizes. The number of winners of these prizes was in the proportion 1:2:3 and half of the participants received prizes.

Cultural Activities

On the occasion of the IOI'92, around 300 foreign guests from all over the world came to Bonn for a two day competition in computer programming. Half the number of guests were teenage students. All guests had been invited to stay in Germany for about ten days. The organizers asked themselves what kind of cultural activities outside the two competition days would contribute best to promote understanding and friendship and make the stay enjoyable and memorable. They believed that a balanced program of trips and visits to some sites of cultural value together with parties and sporting opportunities would be just right. In the following review of the program of cultural activites some aspects are presented which may give some additional insights.

The three main sponsors offered their own contributions to the cultural program: The ministry of education of North Rhine Westphalia with a visit to Düsseldorf and Cologne; the publishing firm Springer-Verlag with a visit to Heidelberg; and the city of Bonn with a free boat ride on the river Rhine and a tour of the city.

There were opening and closing ceremonies which framed the other events of the week. Both ceremonies were held in the great hall of Schloß Birlinghoven - actually a Manor House from the turn of the century, built in imitation of an 18th or 17th century style castle - on the site of the GMD in Sankt Augustin. At each ceremony a concert of classical music could be enjoyed thanks to a quartet and a quintet of young musicians who had been prize winners in Germany's national music competition.

The first day began with a reception by the city of Bonn in the historic Mayor's House. One of the city's mayors welcomed the group, and drinks were provided. Leaving the building, many participants had their group picture taken on the large staircase facing the market place, a view which is also quite popular with foreign heads of governments when visiting Bonn.

After the opening ceremony with some speeches documented in this brochure, the GMD offered eight scientific and technological exhibits and lectures in the afternoon. One telecommunication show was in cooperation with the German Telekom Company. (For details refer to Dr. Heyderhoff's speech on page 28.) In the evening a party was held in the castle and on its terrace with live dixieland music and draft beer.

On the second day there was a trip to Düsseldorf, the capital of the state of North Rhine Westphalia. Upon arrival in Düsseldorf, tourist guides boarded the six buses to take the participants on a sight seeing tour. After visiting the new Parliament building, where North Rhine Westphalia's minister of education, Hans Schwier, welcomed the group, four options were offered for the afternoon: visit of the aquarium, the picture gallery, the Goethe Museum or a walk in the famous shopping street Königsallee. Unfortunately it was raining all day and the program had to be adjusted correspondingly.

On Thursday the participants were taken by bus on a trip to Heidelberg where the publishing house Springer Verlag invited the group for a tour of the city which included the castle and the old university. After an excursion by boat on the river Neckar, professor Thalmann of the University of Geneva gave a lecture on hypermedia techniques in the house of Springer Verlag. During the whole day the weather was marvellous, and in spite of the first day of North Rhine Westphalia's school vacation the traffic flow on the autobahn was surprisingly smooth.

The weekend began with a trip to Cologne. Twelve professional guides received the participants in front of the famous cathedral, which once made Cologne one of the most popular places of pilgrimage in the whole of Europe. The guides offered attractive small group tours in several languages: German, English, Spanish, French, Russian and Chinese. The visitors learned, among other historical details that this building was started in 1248 and that it was finished in 1880. With its 515 feet high towers it was at that time the highest structure in the world. Before the buses took the group to their afternoon activity, some time was given for a walk along Cologne's shopping street Hohe Straße, where a quite unusual spectacle of street artists happened to go by: a group of almost nude people in the appearance of prehistoric animal men chained together and led away by guards in uniform who locked them up in a cage in front of the cathedral. The performance was so convincing that quite a few IOI guests confused the play with reality and asked curious questions. The show left many onlookers puzzled and amazed at this kind of modern theatre art in Europe. The afternoon was spent in Bocklemünd where the group toured the television studios of Germany's biggest television station WDR. Among other things there were stunt shows, special effects and a live radio show with music and cabaret.

On Sunday morning a group of participants went to the American church nearby. Guided tours of the city of Bonn were offered, but the majority of participants preferred to sleep in late, probably because of extensive private partying the previous night. From the organisational point of view it was unfortunate in having ten guides lined up for a group that could be handled by three. But the organizers were convinced that the municipal government of Bonn who provided the guides also finally understood that there were many youngsters who needed to rest and who just stayed in bed without giving anyone prior notice.

The afternoon program, however, with several options was fully booked. The options were:

The last day of the IOI'92, the prize awarding ceremony took place at Schloß Birlinghoven. Speeches were given by Prof. Ortleb, Federal Minister of Education, and by Mr. H. Schwier, Minister of Education of North Rhine Westphalia. Many representatives of various government or private institutions and of several embassies were present.

In the evening of the same day the IOI'92 came to its end with a big farewell party in the Gustav Stresemann Institute. It was a beautiful warm evening after one of the hottest summer days of the year. A band was playing and there was dancing until late in the night. A professional magician from St. Petersburg presented two shows of his best and most entertaining tricks, and with free drinks and snacks everybody could enjoy a wonderful summer night garden party.

Prize Giving Ceremony

Closing Ceremony
on Monday, 20th July 1992

10.45h
Opening Concert
L.van Beethoven (1770-1827): String Quartet in B flat op.18 Nr.6
11.00h
Prof. Dennis Tsichritzis
Chairman of the Board of Directors of GMD

Prof. Rainer Ortleb
Federal Minister of Education and Science

Hans Schwier
Minister of Education, Culture and Sports, North Rhine-Westphalia

Prof. Fritz Krückeberg
Chairman of the National Committee of the International Olympiad in Informatics 1992

12.00h
Interlude:
L.van Beethoven (1770-1827): String Quartet B flat op.18 Nr.6

Prize-Giving
Prof. Peter Widmayer
President of the Jury

Dr. Peter Heyderhoff
Managing Director of IOI'92 and President of the International Olympic Committee

Invitation to the IOI'93 in Argentina
Dr. Alicia Banuelos
Delegation Leader of Argentina

13.00h
Buffet-Lunch on the Terrace
13.30h
Reception for Guests of Honour, Delegation Leaders and their Deputies by Sponsoring Firms, in the Red Chamber

(The Music was performed by winners of the German National Competition of "Jugend musiziert" (Youth music festival))
Young musicians from Saarbrücken:
Vivica Schmitt (Violin), Julia Falkenstein (Violin), Daniel Schmitt (Viola), Sabine Heimrich (Violoncello).

The prize awarding ceremony was an attractive event of great public interest, so that the two large halls of Schloss Birlinghoven (GMD) were filled by all the participants, numerous guests, including many representatives of foreign embassies, of the ministries of the Länder and the federal government and representatives of the sponsors, press, television and broadcasting companies.

Closing Speeches

Prof. Dennis Tsichritzis, Director of GMD

"After a week, hallo again and welcome!

As your host I apologize that it is hot inside and a very nice day outside, but for lunch we will again be sitting outside, so I will not apologize.

Last time I talked about technology and more specifically about information technology. Today I thought I will not talk about technology. I will talk about people and prizes. Regarding the gold, the silver and the bronze prizes, other speakers will talk about them.

I will talk about the people that don't get prizes.

I will start with a very short personal story. When I was about your age, perhaps a little bit older, I was a student at a Technical University, and I was a good student. I was working very hard to understand everything about mechanics since I was an engineer. I also understood everything that there was to understand about cars. As a young man I had to go and pass my driving test. I tried the test, I did not succeed. That was a shock. How come I could understand everything about cars, I was a reasonably intelligent person, and I still failed a very simple test?

I then learned something which is extremely important that stayed with me for the rest of my life. Being first is very important, being second is also very important, but failing to be first or second and still stay in the game is even more important. So my advice to you is:

It doesn't matter that this time you didn't get a prize. The fact that you are here means already that you were chosen among many students. At some point in your life you will miss some prize. That's not important. Just stay in the game! You never know, next time you may actually win.

Thank you very much."

Prof. Rainer Ortleb, Bundesminister für Bildung und Wissenschaft

"Competitors, prize-winners, Prof. Tsichritzis, Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs Schwier, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

It'a a very great honour for me to be able to welcome you here at Schloss Birlinghoven on the occasion of the closing ceremony and the presentation of prizes awarded in the 4th International Olympiad in Informatics 1992 in Bonn. I am very glad that the Federal Republic of Germany was able to host this worldwide competition for pupils. We have all seen the rather neat abbreviation "IOI'92", we shall also remember your identification buttons (name tag with IOI symbol; entitled bearer to free rides on buses and subways), which I am sure you know better how to use than I do. 170 students from 46 countries and their accompanying persons have come to Germany for the 4th IOI'92. Also here are numerous oberservers and foreign guests from yet other states, so that we can in fact welcome here representatives of a total of 51 states from all around the world. The rapid increase in the number of participating teams since the first IOI demonstrate the growing interest which this International Olympiad attracts. Interest which means that the Olympiad has won for itself a firm place among international competitions for pupils. It is a sign of hope to me to see that there are girls here among you today, even if there are only just a few. We take great pains in this country to try to make work with computers attractive for girls. A project along these lines is currently being undertaken by one of the girls' grammar schools here in Bonn. And we hope that our efforts to make the natural sciences more attractive for girls will mean that, in future, we shall see girls in our own team.

My thanks and recognition go to all of you who are participating in the competition. The fact that you have been able to participate on behalf of your country deserves special recognition and shows that you are among the best in your country in this ever more important area of the practical sciences. If I may perhaps adapt a saying from Normandy, it is not short-term effects, such as coincidence and luck, which have led to your success here today but hard work and conscientiousness.

I should like to congratulate the prize winners on their success. A success born of much hard work. Those of you who have won prizes here are among the best in your age group internationally. But even if you did not win a prize yourself and very often the difference between those who win a prize yourself - and very often the difference between those who win prizes and those who do not is marginal -, the fact that you have taken part in this international competition earns your special recognition. You have all demonstrated what excellent results can be produced by young people when they are faced with a challenge. The contacts and friends which you have made here are an additional gain for you all.

I should particularly like to thank all those who helped to promote the competition. First of all, I should like to mention the members of jury. They had an extremely difficult task, which they performed extremely well in the short time available to them. I should also like to thank the accompanying persons, who supported and motivated their charges in many difficult situations. Furthermore I should like to thank all those who were responsible for the organization of the competition, including its long-standing preparation, and also all those who have contributed to its success and continue to do so until the last guests leave tomorrow. My particular thanks are due to Land North-Rhine Westphalia, to the Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (GMD), and of course, to the Bundeswettbewerb Informatik, which is responsible for the organisation of the competition per se. My particular thanks also go to the sponsors who made available the computers required for the competition and who also contributed to the framework programme.

You, the participants, have in your own countries proved your skill in the selection procedures carried out on a national level. In many countries the selection procedure begins with several thousand participants. Here in Germany, too, we have our own national selection procedure, organized by the Bundeswettbewerb Informatik, which has been in existence since 1980 and last year admitted 3000 participants to its first round. Our German team for this Olympiad was selected from those participants who reached the final round of that procedure. One thing which all selection procedures have in common is that they are suitable for identifying talented individuals and for giving those individuals encouragement. In our country, therefore, the selection procedures for the Olympiads in Informatics, Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics as well as our national competition in the natural sciences and the modern languages represent an important part of the necessary process of encouraging talented individuals.

Today, at this awards' ceremony, I can see very clearly that the notion of encouraging talented individuals is recognized worldwide and that these people are no longer left to their own devices. In the light of the great task confronting us, we need people with talents in new areas. Whenever young people compete on the basis of their work, as tey did at the IOI'92 here in Bonn, where we were seeing the best young computer experts from many countries, we can be expect that they have been encouraged to go on producing even better results than before.

I hope very much that the international atmosphere which these young people experenced here will contribute to international cooperation in the sciences later on. I hope that the new friends you have made here, or the old contacts you already had with friends from other countries, will be contacts which you take home with you and develop. In this respect, this International Olympiad in Informatics is also an important step towards solving many problems. Increases in the populations of many countries where space is limited, or worries about the preservation of the environment, confront us with very great tasks which need to be solved by employing all our assets, and this means we need to have gifted people in new areas, particularly in the natural sciences. This is a subject of great importance.

So, I hope, and wish all of you, that the spirit of this competition may be with us and nourish and inspire us for a long time to come and that the International Olympiad in Informatics will continue to develop successfully. I hope very much that you have enjoyed your stay here in Bonn, that the friends you have made here will be friendships which you maintain in the years to come and that you will remember your time here with pleasure.

I am very pleased to be able to present you with a t-shirt as a souvenir of Bonn and of the 4th International Olympiad in Informatics. Once again I should like to thank all of you who participated and all those who contributed to the success of this competition. Thank you very much."

Hans Schwier, Kultusminister Nordrhein-Westfalen

"Ladies and Gentlemen, participants of the International Olympiad in Informatics, Mr. Ortleb,

The promotion of competitions for school children and students across the range of subjects is one of the most pleasant duties in the life of a Minister of Educational & Cultural Affairs. For this reason I was very pleased to be able to accept the offer of the sponsor of the Olympiad that the State of North-Rhine-Westphalia should host the competition.

I am very pleased to be able to welcome you here today not just on behalf of the State Government of the host state North-Rhine-Westphalia but also on behalf of the conference of Ministers of Education & Culture of the 16 German constitutional states.

We all had to get accustomed to the rapid speed with which computer technology has been developed since the construction of the world's first fully automatic program controlled and freely programmable computer, the legendary Zuse Z2 in 1941. The Olympiads in Informatics are quite capable of keeping pace with these developments.

The doubling in the number of participating states by contrast with the olympiad last year is convincing proof of the extraordinary interest which young people show in solving problems with the means available through informatics. Therefore the Olympiad in Informatics is like a shooting star amongst the other international olympiads in the areas of mathematics, natural sciences and technology. In a very impressive way these developments indicate the importance which the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs in countries across all continents show in informatics and computer technology as a key to future economic and technological developments. One of the prerequisits for holding national and international competitions for students is the fact that the reference subjects find their way into school curriculum.

In this respect the State of North-Rhine-Westphalia, as all other states in the Federal Republic of Germany and most countries across all continents, has made great efforts to create preconditions to enable computer technology teaching to find its place in all our schools. But those prerequisits do not only include equipping schools with the necessary hardware and software we also need a new curriculum, new syllabuses, and teaching materials and in particular we have to train our teachers to be able to deal with this matter competently.

For you, the participants of this 4th Olympiad in Informatics, no matter wether you are amongst the medal winners or not I hope that one of the most important objectives of the competition had been fulfilled: You have experienced the stimulating atmosphere for intellectual discussion with people who share the same interest as you and you have been able to make contacts and overcome linguistic or cultural barriers.

On behalf of the president of the conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the German states I should like to thank all of you who have participated in the school teams who have led the delegations or have been active as members of the jury or the organisational team. By doing this work they have participated in the success of this olympiad.

I should like to express my particular thanks to the girls of the Clara Schumann Girls' Grammar School in Bonn for the energetic and most charming help that they gave in looking after the competition delegations. For if you have really experienced the very stimulating and pleasant atmosphere of the IOI'92 I can assure you that this was not only created by the work of all those who organized this competition competently but also by the work of the young Ladies from the Clara Schumann Grammar School.

I should like to congratulate the ones who won medals and I should like to express my hope that all of you have participated here today will retain pleasant memories of the host state of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Thank you very much."

Prof. Fritz Krückeberg, Chairman of the National Committee

"Dear students, team leaders and observers; Minister Ortleb, Minister Schwier and representatives of embassies, of the State and Federal Governments, of the university of Bonn, of the GMD and of the GI, of IFIP and UNESCO, of research, of science and industriy: ladies and gentlemen!

The Fourth International Olympiad in Informatics is now ending with the presentation of awards. We hope very much that you, as participants from more than 50 nations, and as 45 Olympic teams have enjoyed your stay in Germany. We would be very happy if you have been able to make friends with each other and if you formed some impressions of our country, our culture and our people in Germany. Please be sure to visit our country again.

And you, dear students, I hope that you will continue to develope your friendship with students in other countries. By means of such friendships between young people you may make a dream come true, the dream of a world united in cultural understanding and humanity, a world with a future, a world of peace.

We would like to thank everybody who has contributed in making this olympiad a success."

Prof. Peter Widmayer, President of the Jury

"Dear participants, in the strict sense of the word and in any other interpretation of it! It is my great pleasure and my even greater honour to guide you through this prize awarding ceremony. I have been with you during the last week and I have been deeply impressed, not only by your enormous intellectual abilities, but also by your potential for friendship, for cooperation, for harmony, even in a situation in which individuals compete against each other. I have the same deep impression from the work that has been done by the jury, even though each team leader in the jury had to act on behalf of her or his own team. And even though there were conflicting opinions that have been discussed in the jury, there was no disharmony that could stay. Ever since my first participation in such a competition - in 1987 I was the leader of the German team at the International Open Competition on Programming in Sofia - I have felt that it is a wonderful experience from which durable friendships emerge. If I think that you people are the future leaders of the world, running this global operation, I look forward to this future very much.

I agree perfectly with what Professor Tsichritzis said about having a medal or not having it. Evolutionary biologists says that thinking, intelligence, and playing games come from the same roots. Naturally, playing games has always had a low priority in life. Whenever there is danger or pressure or hunger, you stop playing games. This low priority may have carried over to thinking. It is a common phenomenon that, under pressure, people fail to deliver what could be expected from their intelligence or knowledge. For some of you, the intense competition at this olympiad may have had just that effect. But don't worry, be happy: by thinking about and actively working against this phenomenon, those of you who have not won a medal might succeed next time.

(The prize awarding ceremony followed, in which medal winners were called to step forward.)

Press Conference

Just before the beginning of the prize awarding ceremony on 20 July 1992 at 10.00 h an international press conference was held at Schloss Birlinghoven by Mr. G. Hartmut Altenmüller, the IOI's public relations expert. Many international and national journalists as well as television and broadcasting representatives attended this conference and the following prize awarding ceremony. Most of their reports were detailed. "Deutsche Welle" broadcast news of the IOI results worldwide.

1.11 Views and Echos

View to Argentina (IOI'93)

All participating countries of the IOI'92 looked forward to the next Olympiad IOI'93 in Argentina, and gave thanks to the representatives of Argentina, especially Alicia Banuelos and the government of Argentina for the cordial invitation to Mendoza and for the IOI'93 sponsorship.

The International Olympiad in Informatics 1993 (IOI'93) will take place from 16th to 25th October 1993 in Mendoza, Argentina and many countries including Germany will participate.

Echos from the world

We have received large numbers of echos from all over the world. Especially the echo coming from the USA delegation was very detailed. Therefore we include it here as representative sample.

Echo from USA

by Prof. Don Piele, USA teamleader

What a surprise to learn in November of 1991 that an international Olympiad in computer problem solving had been taking place in Europe for three years and that the United States had never participated! I became aware of the competition - the International Olympiad in Informatics (IOI) - from a colleague in South Africa. Later I learned that the idea for the IOI had grown out of the 24th session of the General Conference of UNESCO held in Paris in October, 1987. UNESCO had also been the driving force behind the International Olympiads in Mathematics and the Natural Sciences.

My friend gave me the e-mail address of Dr. Peter Heyderhoff, who was the Managing Director of IOI'92, so I sent off a request for more information. Peter was delighted to see that the U.S. might be interested in participating, and he quickly e-mailed the information I requested.

I learned that the IOI is an international programming competition for students up to age 19, and that only officially invited teams can participate. The host country sends out an official invitation to its foreign embassies around the world. This year Germany sent out 64 invitations, including one that went to the German Embassy in Washington, DC.

Unfortunately, when I contacted the German Embassy, they had no idea what I was talking about. It took several phone calls to track down on whose desk the official invitation had landed. The invitation apparently went from the Embassy to the German Desk of the U.S. State Department and then over to the Department of Education, where it ended up in the hands of Dr. Steward Tinsman, Director of International and Territorial Affairs. He was not familiar with the computer Olympiad but did give me some advice on how to go about organizing an official U.S. team. By this time it was the end of January, and the deadline for entering a U.S. team was February 28th. Several tasks had to be done and quickly, so I turned to e-mail once again.

I sent a request for support to Bonnie Marks, President, and Dave Moursund, Executive Officer of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). They both agreed that ISTE would participate in the Olympiad and that I could put the team together using sources with which I was familiar. Since 1981, I had organized and conducted an International Computer Problem Solving Contest (ICPSC) at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside, which was written up each year in "The Computing Teacher", the primary publication of ISTE. Thus, I was familiar with high schools in the U.S. that had students who had been winners in the ICPSC. That is where I began looking for the team of four students.

This year there would be no time to conduct a nationwide runoff contest to pick the members of the first U.S. team. I had to rely on the assistance of local ICPSC contest directors and of others involved with national computer programming contests to recommend their best prospects. I was also able to contact many former winners of ICPSC directly via e-mail. Those who were seriously interested and could make the trip to Bonn from July 10th - July 21st were asked to send me their résumés. Again, e-mail speeded up this process, and soon I had five good prospects.

Two factors weighed heavily in the selection of the U.S. IOI team. First, time was very short, which made it impossible to give all students in the U.S. an equal chance at making the team. Second, there was a quick response from one area of the U.S. (North Carolina and Virginia) that had an abundant supply of former ICPSC champions. Barbara Larson at Thomas Jefferson School of Science and Technology, in Alexandria, Virginia e-mailed me a list of her best prospects, as did Patsy Hester at Enloe High School in Raleigh, NC, and Harold Reiter at the University of North Carolina in Charlotte. Other names were suggested, but in the end three of the IOI members selected came from North Carolina and one from Virginia. This made it practical for them to get together for one practice session in May. Harold Reiter invited the team to stay at his home, and they used computers at a nearby company for a two day training session.

All team expenses for IOI'92 while in Germany would be paid for by the German government. Getting there, however, would not, and, it turned out, finding support for the air fare costs (~ $3,000) was not as easy as I had expected. Contacts at NSF and the Department of Education suggested that our best bet was not with them but with private companies, so I sent out requests for support to two well know software firms. I was sure that they would jump at the chance to pick up the air fare in exchange for being recognized as the sponsor of the first U.S. team to the International Olympiad in Informatics. We were even willing to wear T-Shirts with their company logo on the front. We waited patiently for a reply. One firm never gave us one even after repeated reminders and many promises that a decision was close at hand. The other said, "We get all kinds of good proposals asking for support and we can't fund them all. Sorry." Harold Reiter was able to get American Airlines to give the team a reduced fare, and we ended up paying for the tickets ourselves. But given the tremendous opportunity to participate in this event, the cost to each ($500) was well worth it.

On July 10th, 1992, David Datta, the deputy team leader from Kenosha, Wisconsin, and I met three of the team members for the first time in person at the departure gate in Chicago's O'Hare as we headed for Germany. It wasn't hard to spot two of them, as both Rusty and Mike are well over 6 feet tall, and even sitting down they tower over the pack. Russell Hunt and Mike Prior had just graduated from Enloe High School in Raleigh, NC and are headed for MIT in the Fall. Nathan Bronson, the third team member, was from Parkwood HS in Monroe, NC, had won the ICPSC Senior "C" Division in April, and will go to Duke University. Shawn Smith from Oakton, Virginia, our final team member and a freshman at Rice University, had already flown to Czechoslovakia with his family and would be meeting up with us in Bonn.

I'm sure none of us had any idea of the amount of planning and preparation that had gone into the International Olympiad. We got our first hint of the Germans' attention to detail when we arrived at the train station in Bonn after a two-hour trip from the airport in Frankfurt. Two young high school girls with pink scarves and waving IOI'92 posters greeted us and escorted us onto the subway and off to the Gustav-Stresemann Institute where we would be staying for the next ten, activity packed, days. We were each given a ten day pass to the subway system in Bonn, a telephone card for free phone calls, an attractive green and purple IOI'92 backpack, the keys to our rooms and 50DM (Deutsch Marks) for spending money.

We had arrived on Saturday, and it would be four days before the first day of the competition. In the meantime the daily schedule of activities began on Monday with a reception hosted by the Mayor of Bonn, opening ceremonies at the Castle Birlinghoven, lunch on the terrace, a tour of the German National Research Center for Mathematics and Computer Science, followed by an evening party with Dixieland music. With 51 countries participating and six people in each delegation, roughly 300 people were being hosted at these events. Nevertheless, all the events were carried off with German efficiency and style.

Tuesday was another full day, with a reception hosted by the Minister of Education and Culture at the Parliament building in Dusseldorf, followed by a visit to a local art museum. By Wednesday, everyone was ready for the first day of competition. All delegation leaders and deputy leaders (called the jury) gathered together at 6:00 am Wednesday morning to begin the careful selection of the first contest problem. Each team leader had already submitted two problems for possible use in the contest - - all problems being algorithmic. These problems were examined by the Scientific Committee made up of computer science professionals from the host country. They tested the problems and selected two sets of three problems each - one set for each of the two contest days. After reading the three problems and discussing their merits, the jury selected by vote the first problem of the competition.

English was the official language of the competition. However, each student had to be able to read the problem in his/her native language. So, once the problem was selected, the team leaders and deputy team leaders from non-English countries began translating the problem. I estimate that there were approximately 35 different native languages represented. Everything stayed on schedule, and by 10:00 am the contest was ready to begin. Each participant had his/her own computer supplied by IBM or Siemans, with Turbo Pascal, Turbo C, QuickBasic, and Logo already installed. Nearly 200 identical systems were spread out in six different rooms. Now, each student had exactly five hours to solve the first problem.

At precisely 3:00 pm all computers were turned off, and students handed in a disk at the door containing a copy of their program. The contestants filed out of the rooms with looks of amusement, amazement, bewilderment, pain, and relief. Each student had an appointed time to return with his/her team leader and they would meet with a coordinator supplied by Germany at this time to evaluate the students solution and award points. Nate Bronson was first up for the United States. Each coordinator had a score sheet and a disk of files to run against the program. The source code was not examined - only the output of the program. Points were awarded for a list of eight items, including: does it display input data properly; does it write the solution to the output file; does it construct all possible solutions; were the technical constraints completely obeyed? A perfect score was 100. Nate's program was perfect.

It took several hours to examine all 170 programs, signaling the end of the first day of competition. Mike and Rusty each received 85 points and Shawn a perfect 100. The jury, which was the final arbiter in all disputes over scoring, met late into the evening to review the results and handle any complaints. There was one misinterpretation by several students on how to handle input data that was out of bounds. The Scientific Committee agreed to change their initial position on this point, since what the students had done in this case was what many of us would also have done. This demonstrates that even as carefully reviewed as this problem had been, it is difficult to state a problem that is completely free of ambiguity.

The next day began with a three hour bus ride to Heidelberg followed by a guided tour of the Heidelberg Castle, the romantic city, and old university. Lunch was served on a boat trip on the way down the Neckar river to the town of Neckarstein. From there we boarded busses for a short trip to a computer graphics demonstration at the publishing house of Springer-Verlag.

Friday, the second and last competition day, was a repeat of Wednesday with one exception; the three problems we had to choose from were more difficult. Since many students had scored 100 points in the first round, we wanted to make sure the task was sufficiently tough to separate out the very best. We chose the most difficult one, and it turned out to be about right.

There were two more activity filled days, including a tour of Cologne's famous cathedral, a walk to Beethoven's house in Bonn, a visit to WDR Germany's biggest TV-studio, and a walk in the Seven Mountains followed by a boat ride down the Rhine from Königswinter to Bonn. The students relaxed during these trips and began to mix. The Asian teams still tended to keep together but I hardly saw my students on these trips. The Chinese team leader, with whom I talked on several occasions, wondered if I really had a team. He had never seen us all together. The U.S team members were usually off with students from England, Australia, or South Africa and occasionally with the two young women from the Netherlands. Of the 170 students present, only 7 were women, and we all wished there were more. The two Dutch women had outgoing personalities and attracted lots of attention. On one particularly long bus ride, they went up and down the aisles attaching home-made devices to the button holes of unsuspecting students to give them something to work on - how do you get this thing off? I have since learned that letters have already been exchanged between friends made at IOI'92.

Equity among men and women was the only point that caused the slightest division among the team leaders. It had been a concern at the last IOI'91 in Greece and a recommendation had come out of the that Olympiad: "Girls should be strongly encouraged to participate." The Netherlands felt that their women were just as good as their men and had always put two men and two women on their team. They felt that every country should try harder to bring women to the competition, and they formally proposed that each country have a mixed team with at least one woman. Furthermore, if they could not bring at least one woman, they could bring only three men rather than four. I felt that this was one way to actually get more participation by women and supported the proposal, as did 12 other countries. But more team leaders felt this was not practical, since the difference in interest and ability between men and women in their country was too great and they would not be able to find women who would be competitive in this activity. The proposal failed probably due to the strong opposition voiced by the team leader from Argentina - a woman.

The award ceremony was held on Monday at the Castle Birlinghoven. It began with a quartet of German high school students playing Beethoven, followed by speeches from the Minister of Education, the Minister of Cultural Affairs, and the Director of the German National Institute for Research in Mathematics and Computer Science (GMD). The 41 bronze medal winners were announced, and they walked to the front to receive their medals followed by the 31 silver medal winners. The 13 gold medal winners were introduced one at a time and given gifts ranging from Apple PowerBook computers to HP laser printers - approximately $1,500 in value for each student. The rules called for a prize distribution of approximately 1 gold to 2 silver to 3 bronze, with the total number of medals not to exceed half the number of participants. The jury had decided on the cutoff scores to achieve this goal. All except one of those who received the gold medal had scored a perfect 200 points, and he scored a close 198.

I was especially happy that two of the U.S. team members had won a gold medal on our first try. All of the other gold medal winning countries, except Korea, had participated in the competition from its beginnings in Bulgaria in 1989. Thirteen countries competed in the first IOI. The second IOI was held Belorussia, in 1990, with 24 countries, and the third IOI was held in Greece in 1991 with 25 countries. This year the size doubled to 47 participating countries and 4 observing countries.

A buffet-lunch on the terrace followed the awards, and all the students received a collection of goodies in an attractive black IBM duffel bag to go along with their certificates of participation. Throughout the ceremonies pictures were taken by the German press, TV stations, and many proud team leaders. An air balloon was resting on the back lawn ready to take the winners airborne. Unfortunately, wind conditions were not safe enough to risk a flight, but the afternoon was a marvelous finale to ten wonderful days at IOI'92. This will be a tough Olympiad to follow. IOI'93 is scheduled for Argentina in October of 1993.

2. International Committee

2.1 Its History and Composition

The International Committee for the IOI was founded by the assembly of all delegates participating in the first IOI at the 19th of May 1989 in Pravetz, Bulgaria. The following members have been nominated and voted by this international Jury:

The second meeting of the International Committee was held during the second IOI in Minsk 1990 and the composition of the committee was changed by decision of the assembly of all IOI delegates to the following members:

The third meeting of IC was held at the 25 - 28 February 1991 in Athens invited by the IOI Organizing Committee of Greece. It was attended by:

and the guests:

The fourth meeting was held during the third IOI in Athens 1991. The composition was adjusted by decision of the assembly of all IOI delegates to:

The fifth meeting was held at the 27 - 30 October 1991 in Bonn invited by the IOI Organizing Committee of Germany. Results and decisions of this meeting have been reported in chapter 1.9 of this final report. The meeting was attended by:

and the guests:

2.2 Meeting and Decisions

During the Fourth International Olympiad in Informatics the sixth meeting of the International Committee was held on the 15th and 17th of July.

The International Committee consisted of

and: who were elected by the general assembly.

Topics and decisions:

1. Composition of the Committee

Based on a recommendation of the International Jury it was decided that the IC should be comprised of

In October 1993 the USSR representatives (for Belorussia and Russia) would leave the committee and new members may be elected. There might also be a change in the future hosts at that stage if any of them decided they could not host an IOI. However, hosts should be confirmed three years in advance.

It should be aimed to:

The election procedure for the other members would be:

2. Next Olympiad in 1993

It has been confirmed that the next International Olympiad in Informatics will be held in Argentina on the 13th - 23th October 1993. Some finance has been assigned from the Argentinian government and sponsorship from other sources are currently being sought.

There has been a suggestion that the most economic travel solution for European teams is likely to be a charter flight from Amsterdam or Paris. Details will be posted from Argentina.

3. Olympiads after 1993

There have been several offers to host the Olympiad in the future which at the moment maps out as follows:
      1994  Sweden
      1995  Netherlands (UK has retracted)
      1996  Hungary

Offers have also been received from

              Portugal,
              Korea,
              China,
              South Africa,
              Australia.

These countries will confirm their offers either in Argentina or at a later date.

4. Regulation Changes

It was decided that the maximum age has been reduced by one year to 19 years of age as of the 1st July of the IOI year. The participant also must have been at school by the beginning of the IOI year. So in Argentina anyone born after 1st July 1974 and who is at school in 1992/93 may participate.

It was decided that a change to the regulations allowing paper materials to be taken into the competition rooms was necessary. This is to take effect after Argentina, ie. starting in 1994 with Sweden, no more paper material will be allowed in the competition rooms.

In order to reduce the time of installing software it was decided that example programs and tours will be excluded. It was also decided that there should be a master list of available programming languages. The list is as follows:

In addition, teams would be allowed to request in advance other versions of the software for inclusion. Availability would be at the discretion of the host nation. A decision about the inclusion of additional languages, especially Scheme, will be taken by the IC meeting in November.

5. Women Participation

A proposal was presented by Ries Kock of the Netherlands that the Committee should make greater efforts to promote the inclusion of girls in National teams. Mrs. Alicia Banuelos presented an oppositional paper about "Woman participation in future IOI". After some discussion, Kock's suggestion that teams should comprise three members or a single gender team and four members for a mixed gender team, was put to a vote for inclusion in the regulations 1993. The outcome was eight votes in favour and one vote against. But it was pointed out that such a major change in the regulations required at least two years to take effect and that because the vote was not anonymous it should go before the general assembly (the jury) for additional guidance. The jury decided not to change the regulations in this respect.

6. Improving the IOI Communication

It was proposed by the Hungarian and the US delegates to install an electronic discussion list, in the form of a list server, as a means of communication among the participating countries in the period between two olympiads. The list server is mainly a distribution medium to which every subscriber can submit messages, and these messages are then forwarded to all the other subscribers. It is usually available through several international networks (including internet, EARN/Bitnet, UUCP). The list server would allow the discussion of important proposals, dissemination of information, regulations and opinions, distribution of problem descriptions used at national and other international contests, etc.

For those who do not have access to electronic mail, at least two options are open: (1) they can ask someone in their country or a neigbour country to collect messages and regularly send copies on diskettes to them, (2) the organizing country of the next olympiad is asked to perform this task.

It was decided that this activity should be started by the proposing delegates. You may subscribe yourself to the mailing list by sending a mail to the Internet adress: ioi-request@inf.bme.hu. The body of the message should consist of one line containing either the word HELP or the word SUBSCRIBE. As a reply you will receive an automatic help message or a confirmation of your subscription.

The Iranian delegate proposed that the IC should consider a quarterly newsletter regarding the IOI and distributing it to all countries involved. The proposed newsletter could reflect the following matters:

This was discussed. Some of these suggestions are already covered by the annual final reports (like this one). Others may be covered in future by our email-box.

2.2a Statement on Women participation

A statement by Alicia Banuelos, Argentina

Although almost all agree that every reasonable effort should be made to encourage and increase women's participation in the IOI, some countries have suggested the inclusion of rules that, according to our point of view, may produce a result that contradicts the stated objective and, besides that, produce other negative side effects.

In particular, there has been a proposal to require participating countries to include at least one women in their teams if they were 4 people in the team. This proposal has, at least, the following drawbacks:

1. It requires participating countries to change their selection rules in ways that are difficult to implement, contradict their own views of how to protect woman and minority rights, or work against offering equal opportunities to each citizen.

2. It may lead participating countries to change the selection process to have separate contests. Since there is every reason to think that men and women are comparable in this discipline, this segregation is, in fact, a violation of women rights.

3. Forcing women participation in the IOI may result in a perception that women are, in this discipline, less qualified than men.

4. Other competitions are generally based on either free participation respective of sex or complete separation of the competition. This mixed proposal has side effects that are difficult to anticipate.

Based on the above mentioned problems, we propose the following resolution:

A. Send a message to each participating country asking their cooperation to further encourage and increase women participation in the IOI.

B. Prohibit in the IOI any kind of prize that is based on the sex, colour or religion of the participant, like for example, best ranked woman prize.

C. Ask participating countries to submit to the Jury of the IOI a report stating the measures they have taken to effect the objective stated in A above.

3. Regulations

3.1 Main Regulations

1. Participation

The fourth Olympiad in Informatics is an international programming competition for senior pupils. Only officially invited national teams can participate. Each participating country may send a team consisting of

Countries who wish to participate actively must send at least one pupil and one team leader. Girls should be strongly encouraged to participate. Countries that do not send a national team may participate with one observer.

Germany will cover team expenses for board and lodging, excursions and transfer from and to Cologne(Köln)/Bonn airport. Travelling costs to and from Cologne/Bonn airport will be covered by each participating country.

Persons accompanying the national team and pupils' relatives may attend at their own expense. The number of accompanying persons will be limited.

A prerequisite for participation is the timely registration of the national team. Countries which have already participated must submit at least one problem for the competition including a suggested solution and proposals for the evaluation of the solutions in English.

Deadlines
29 Feb.'92: Registration for participation, with name of team leader, number of prospective participants and submission of two problems if possible;

31 May '92: Registration of the whole team, with names and addresses of all participants and accompanying persons.

2. Organisation

The fourth International Olympiad in Informatics (IOI'92) will take place in Bonn, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, from 12th to 21st July 1992. The competition will be held at the Gustav Stresemann Institute. This international youth academy is located in the centre of Bonn close to the river Rhine. All participants and accompanying persons will also be accommodated there.

The IOI'92 is supported by the Federal Republic of Germany, represented by the Federal Minister of Education and Science, in cooperation with the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Laender in the Federal Republic of Germany and in consultation with the Foreign Office. The event will be organized by the "Bundeswettbewerb Informatik".

Address of the Organisation Office:

Dr. Peter Heyderhoff
IOI'92 Organisation Office
Schloß Birlinghoven
Postfach 1316
D-5205 Sankt Augustin 1
Germany

Tel.: + 49 2241 14 2494
Fax: + 49 2241 14 2090
email: heyderhoff @ gmd.de
telex: 889469 gmd d

3. Organs of the IOI'92

Organs of the fourth International Olympiad in Informatics (IOI'92) are:

4. Problems

Each participant, working independently on a personal computer, has to solve two problems, each within five hours.

Each participating country has to submit at least one problem according to the conditions of participation.

The problems will be selected by the Jury from the six problems that have been prepared by the Scientific Committee. These have been selected from the problems submitted by the participating countries.

The problems will be of algorithmic type. No special hardware requirements or software packages will be needed for solving them. The problems are given to the students in written form without any additional oral information.

The following programming languages are permitted:

5. Tools

For the Olympiad each participant will be provided with a personal computer and the necessary system software. He/she should be familiar with the MS-DOS operating system and with a QWERTY keyboard. The compilers and programming environments for the above-mentioned programming languages as well as the MS-DOS editor will be installed on hard disk. Hard copies of files can only be printed off-line via diskettes.

Only the computers provided may be used in the competition. No copying of the software on the computers, nor the use of private or other software or private diskettes will be allowed.

The use of printed material will not be restricted.

6. Working Languages

Every participant may use his/her mother tongue. The problems will be given in both English and the respective mother tongue.

Team leaders and deputy team leaders must be able to speak and understand English as well as the language of their teams. English will be the only working language of the International Jury.

7. Competition

The competition consists of two rounds on two days. At the start of each day of competition the Scientific Committee will submit three problems to the Jury, who will select one for the competition. The selected problem will be translated by the team leaders into the respective mother tongues and supplied in handwritten form. A period of four hours will be provided for all this preparations each morning.

At 10.00 am the problem will be given to the participants in English and in their mother tongues. Five hours' working time will be allowed. During the first half hour a participant may ask the Jury in writing about the text of the problem. Only questions that can be answered with "Yes"/"No" or "No comment" will be accepted. The answers will be given as soon as possible.

When the working time has elapsed, each participant's program will be checked by one coordinator using previously unknown test data. The team leader and the student must be present. During this checking, all required tests will be run and a written report will be signed by the coordinator and the team leader. Each participant's program will be copied on two diskettes and the corresponding description, if any, will be collected. The coordinator and the team leader will each keep one copy of the diskettes. Printouts will be produced by the coordinator and then given to the team leader.

The team leader and the coordinator will together examine each solution and agree on a preliminary evaluation. By moderating the solution in the Coordinating Committee a just and balanced evaluation is to be achieved. The Chief Coordinator will present the result to the Jury, who will make the final decision. If a team leader cannot accept the coordinating committee's evaluation, he may direct himself to the Jury. All decisions taken during the evaluation procedure will be final.

When the evaluation is finished, the Jury will determine the minimum scores for the first, second and third prizes. The number of winners of these prizes is to be in the proportion 1:2:3, with up to half the participants receiving prizes.

The prizes, certificates and medals will be awarded in an official ceremony. Each competitor will receive a certificate of participation.

Time Schedule:
12.7. Arrival, becoming familiar with the computer
13.7. Opening ceremony, excursion / Jury session
14.7. Trip to Cologne and Düsseldorf
15.7. Competition, first problem / Jury session
16.7. Trip to Heidelberg
17.7. Competition, second problem / Jury session
18.7. Excursion / Jury session
19.7. Excursion into the hills along the Rhine
20.7. Prizegiving ceremony, banquet
21.7. Departure

3.2 Arbitration and Evaluation Rules

Tasks and working procedures of the Jury

The Jury is responsible for the evaluation in the Olympiad. Decisions are taken by simple majority vote; in the case of equality the President decides. If requested, the vote may be taken by secret ballot.

The Jury relies on the Scientific Committee's careful preparatory work. It selects three problems for each of the two rounds, it tests the problems, rewrites them, adds test procedures and proposes a scheme for evaluation. The scheme says how the total of 100 points is to be allotted to the parts of the solution. In the morning of the competition day the Jury selects the problems and decides on the corresponding evaluation schemes.

In the evaluation of individual solutions the Jury relies mainly on the Coordinating Committee. Only in case of disagreement and if requested by a team leader the Jury decides. The following procedure for evaluation and arbitration has to be applied before the Jury's decision.

Coordinators and Participants

There is one coordinator for each participant. The pairing of coordinators and participants is so that each country has several coordinators and each coordinator is allocated to several countries. No coordinator will be responsible for his own country.

First Evaluation Step

For each problem the coordinators receive from the Chief Coordinator an evaluation form which has been prepared by the Scientific Committee. As specified in this form, the program is run for testing by the coordinator, the team leader and the participant after the competition time is over. The coordinator gives a provisional evaluation on the form. Deviating results of the team leader are also written on the form. Both coordinator and team leader sign the evaluation form which is the basis for the final evaluation. The coordinator receives the evaluation form, a print out of the program and a diskette with the sources. The team leader receives a program print out and a diskette with the sources.

Second Evaluation and First Arbitration Step

For standardisation the provisional evaluations are compared and discussed by the Coordinating Committee. Negative changes of the provisional evaluation are explained to the team leader in order to reach agreement. If the team leader agrees, he signs the new evaluation.

Second Arbitration Step

If agreement cannot be achieved, the case is submitted to the Chief Coordinator who give his own evaluation.

Third Arbitration Step

If the team leaders are of the opinion that the regulations have not been properly applied or that its application did not lead to a satisfactory result, the case may be submitted to the Jury for a final decision.

Final Evaluation by the Jury

Normally the Jury does not decide on individual evaluations but follows the evaluation list submitted by the Chief Coordinator. The Jury decides on a final graded list of participants. The Chief Coordinator proposes to the Jury the minimum scores for the first, second and third prices.

3.3 Regulations for the Organisation

The contest starts at 10:00 am. The participants should switch on their computers themselves.

It is not allowed to bring diskettes into the computer rooms. Each of the participants will receive two IOI diskettes.

One diskette they should use for printing purposes only. The printing job shop is organized in such a way, that on this diskette there may be only the files to be printed. Nothing else! Page limit for one print job is 20 pages.

The other diskette should be used for backup purposes only. It is recommended during the program typing phase to make a backup at least every 15 minutes during the contest.

In case of a computer breakdown the participant will be switched to another machine. Time lost for transition and restart etc. will be compensated.

The contest ends at 3:00 pm SHARP. Fifteen minutes before 3:00 pm there will be an announcement "The contest ends in 15 minutes". Such an announcement will be repeated from time to time for a countdown.

Please instruct your participants that it makes no sense trying to change anything in their programs in the last few minutes.

The last ten minutes the participants should use to:

  1. Make a diskette backup of at least the RESULT FILE.
  2. Make sure that the RESULT FILE is named and located correctly on hard disk according to the technical constraints of the task. Otherwise the participant will loose points and the evaluating team will loose time.

There can be only one RESULT FILE - the participant will be asked ONLY ONCE to tell the coordinater the name and location of that file. It must be an ASCII file containing the complete program source. We do not accept special structured files (e.g. LCN standard) or solutions with units in separated files.

After the contest all participants have to leave the computer rooms. When leaving they have to hand out their two diskettes to an assistant. If a participant leaves the computer room with a diskette s/he will be disqualified.

The participants are requested to return to the entrance of their computer room at the time scheduled for their evaluation.

3.4 The Online Documentation System

The IOI contest software system consisted of a MS-DOS directory structure with established places and names for the programming development systems, the special command files, the task texts, the example files, the solution programms, input and output data files, etc.

The Scientific Committee developed a small online documentation therefore. Each directory contained an INFO file - not larger than one screen - that answered the fundamental questions "Where am I?", "What can I do here?", "What should I do next?", and "Where should go from here?". Additionaly four central documentation files (DOC, ENV, LANG, BAT) described the IOI software installation as a whole.

These texts have been distributed in print before the contest days among the team leaders. The following are listings of those documentation files and some example INFO files:

----------------------------------------------------
This is the IOI Documentation System: Welcome !
----------------------------------------------------
You are now reading the text file
"C:\IOI\DOCUMENT\doc-info.ioi".

Initial introduction to the IOI Software System:

1. The Operation System is Microsoft MS-DOS 5.0 (english).
   Presettings see files "C:\config.sys" and "C:\autoexec.bat".

2. The standard Text Editor can be called with command "edit"
   optionally followed by a filename.

3. Each directory contains an Information File "info.ioi"
   which you can read with "info".

4. The directory "C:\IOI\DOCUMENT" contains Documentation Files.
   Read them with commands "doc", "env", "lang", and "bat".

Recommended actions are:

env  to read a document about the IOI dir structure.
lang to read a document about the IOI progr language
bat  to read a document about the IOI sys commands.
info to get information where you are and what to do
Type "env" and you can read this:
====================================================
This is the IOI Documentation System: Don't Panic !
----------------------------------------------------
You are now reading the text file
"C:\IOI\DOCUMENT\env-info.ioi".

The directory structure implemented is:

 ROOT ................ MS-DOS Root Environment ..
  |
  |--> DOS ........... MS-DOS System Environment
  |     |--> BAT ..... IOI System Commands ......
  |
  |--> IOI ........... IOI Contest Environment ..
  |     |--> DAY-1 ... IOI Contest First  Day ...
  |     |--> DAY-2 ... IOI Contest Second Day ...
  |     |--> DOCUMENT  IOI System Documents .....
  |     |--> LANGUAGE  IOI Programming Languages
  |
  |--> JOY ........... IOI Recreation Environment

For information about the content of a directory (e.g. "C:\XXX\YYY"),
switch to this directory ("cd C:\XXX\YYY") and use command "info".
Type "lang" and you can read this:
====================================================
This is the IOI Documentation System: Don't Panic !
----------------------------------------------------
You are now reading the text file
"C:\IOI\DOCUMENT\lan-info.ioi".

Under "C:\IOI\LANGUAGE" we installed eight programming systems in
separate directories. For each system we introduced a standard-name
and a short-name. You can call the programming systems using
standard-name or short-name for a DOS command. The appropriate command
procedures are located in "C:\DOS\BAT". It is recommended not to
change these procedures. If you implement commands for your own
purposes, please put them into directory "C:\IOI\DAY-1" on the first
day, and into "C:\IOI\DAY-2" on the second day of the contest.

IOI-Programming-Language  Standard-Name  Short-Name
---------------------------------------------------
GWBasic Version 3.20 ...... BASIC-GW ........... GW
Quick Basic Version 4 ..... BASIC-QU ........... QB
Turbo C++ ................. C--PLUS2 ........... TC
Quick C ................... C--QUICK ........... QC
Microsoft C Version 5 ..... C-MCSOFT ........... MC
LCN-Logo Version 2 ........ LOGO-LCN ........... LO
Turbo Pascal 5.5 .......... PASCAL-5 ........... P5
Turbo Pascal 6.0 .......... PASCAL-6 ........... P6
---------------------------------------------------
Type "bat" and you can read this:
====================================================
This is the IOI Documentation System: Don't Panic !
----------------------------------------------------
You are now reading the text file
"C:\IOI\DOCUMENT\bat-info.ioi".

This is a list of the IOI commands located in
directory "C:\DOS\BAT".
It is recommended not to change these commands
or to implement own commands with the same names.

Commands of the IOI Documentation Environment:
----------------------------------------------------
BAT .  displays this document about the IOI sys cmds
DAY-1  switches to the contest environment, firstday
DAY-2  switches to the contest environment, 2. day.
DOC    displays a document about the IOI doc system.
ENV    displays a document about the IOI dir struct.
INFO   displays where you are and what to do.
LANG   displays a document about the IOI progr syst.
----------------------------------------------------

Commands of the JOY Recreational Environment:
----------------------------------------------------
D92 ...  Language Teacher.
EURO ..  Tour through Europe.
PCGLOBE  World Map Teacher.
PCMENSCH Human Body Teacher.
----------------------------------------------------

Commands of the IOI Programming Environment:
----------------------------------------------------
GW   calls the GWBasic 3.20 programming system
LO   calls the LCN-Logo programming system
MC   calls the Microsoft C programming system
P5   calls the Turbo Pascal 5.5 programming system
P6   calls the Turbo Pascal 6.0 programming system
QB   calls the Quick Basic programming system
QC   calls the Quick C programming system
TC   calls the Turbo C++ programming system
----------------------------------------------------
====================================================
This is the IOI Documentation System: Don't Panic !
----------------------------------------------------
You are now in the MS-DOS Root Environment.

Software objects in the "C:\" directory are:
      Name          Purpose
      ------------------------------------------
      autoexec.bat  DOS System Presettings
      command .com  DOS System
      config  .sys  DOS System Presettings
      dos     .dir  DOS System
      info    .ioi  IOI Documentation
      io      .sys  DOS System
      ioi     .dir  IOI Contest Environment
      joy     .dir  JOY Recreational Environment
      ll3     .sys  DOS System
      msdos   .sys  DOS System
      ------------------------------------------
      Please do not change anything here.
Recommended actions are:
    doc          to read documentation.
    cd ioi       to switch to the IOI contest E.
    cd joy       to switch to the recreational E.

====================================================
This is the IOI Documentation System: Don't Panic !
----------------------------------------------------
You are now in the MS-DOS System Environment.

Software objects in the "C:\DOS" directory are:
       Name          Purpose
       ---------------------------------------------
       bat     .dir  IOI system commands
       info    .ioi  IOI documentation
       pcopy   .dir  DOS system files
                     (not installed on every comp.)
       < 78 files >  DOS system files
       ---------------------------------------------
Please do not change anything here.

Recommended actions are:
doc        to read about the documentation system.
env        to read about the directory structure.
lang       to read about the programming languages.
bat        to read about the system commands.
help       to get information about DOS commands.
cd bat     to switch to the IOI commands environment
cd C:\IOI  to switch to the IOI contest environment.
cd C:\JOY  to switch to the JOY recreational environ

====================================================
You are now in the IOI commands environment.

Software objects in the  "C:\DOS\BAT"  directory are
Name(s)                     Type   Purpose
----------------------------------------------------
doc, info, env, lang, bat   .bat Documentation Tools
day-1, day-2                .bat Contest Tools
gw, basic-gw,  qb, basic-qu .bat Programming Tools
tc, c--plus2                .bat Programming Tools
qc, c--quick   mc, c-mcsoft .bat Programming Tools
lo, logo-lcn                .bat Programming Tools
p5, pascal-5   p6, pascal-6 .bat Programming Tools
d92, euro, pcglobe, pcmensch.bat Program Calls
info                        .ioi Documentation
----------------------------------------------------
Please do not change anything here.

Recommended actions are:
bat  to read a document about the IOI system cmmds.
lang to read a document about the IOI progr. lang.
cd   to switch to the IOI contest environment.

====================================================
You are now in the IOI First Day Contest Environment

Here and ONLY HERE you have to place the files with your
solution program as requested in the given contest task!

Initial software objects in the "C:\IOI\DAY-1" directory are:

Name         Purpose               Read-only  Hidden
----------------------------------------------------
info   .ioi  IOI Documentation         +        +
----------------------------------------------------

Recommended actions are:

env     to read a document about the IOI dir struct.
bat     to read a document about the IOI sys commds.

====================================================
You are now in the IOI Documentation Environment.

Software objects in the "C:\IOI\DOCUMENT" dir are:
Name          Purpose              Read-only  Hidden
----------------------------------------------------
bat-info.ioi  IOI System Commands         +     -
doc-info.ioi  IOI Documentation System    +     -
env-info.ioi  IOI Directory Structure     +     -
info    .ioi  IOI Documentation           +     +
lan-info.ioi  IOI Programming Languages   +     -
----------------------------------------------------

Please read all these documents carefully.

Recommended actions are:

bat    to read a document about IOI sys commands.
env    to read a document about IOI dir structure.
lang   to read a document about IOI prog languages.
day-1  to work on the problem of the first contest.
day-2  to work on the problem of the second contest.

====================================================
You are now in the IOI Programming Systems Environment.

Objects in the "C:\IOI\LANGUAGE" directory are:

Name             Programming Language
-----------------------------------------
BASIC-GW . dir   GWBasic 3.20
BASIC-QU . dir   Quick Basic Version 4.50
C--PLUS2 . dir   Turbo C++
C--QUICK . dir   Quick C 2.50a
C-MCSOFT . dir   Microsoft C Version 5
LOGO-LCN . dir   LCN Logo Version 2
PASCAL-5 . dir   Turbo Pascal 5.5
PASCAL-6 . dir   Turbo Pascal 6.0
info     . ioi   IOI Documentation
-----------------------------------------
Please do not change anything here.

Recommended actions are:
bat     to read a document about the IOI sys cmds.
lang    to read a document about the Prog Systems.

====================================================
You are now in the IOI Recreation Environment.

Software objects in the "C:\JOY" directory are:

  Name          Purpose
  ----------------------------------------------
  info    .ioi  IOI Documentation
  deut92  .dir  IOI Language learning
  euro    .dir  IOI Tour through Europe - Game
  pcglobe .dir  IOI Electronic world map
  pcmensch.dir  IOI Knowing the human body
  ----------------------------------------------

Recommended actions are:
d92          to start learning German.
euro         to play a game about Europe.
pcglobe      to get facts about 190 states.
pcmensch     to get facts about the human body.
cd c:\ioi    to go to the IOI contest environment.
bat          to read about the IOI system commands.

3.5 Evaluation Schedule

Evaluation Plan (Day-1)

Procedure: Execute your list sequentially. If you arrive at a nation, which currently is evaluated by another person, wait and recreate. This will happen mostly when in your list there is a "free" entry.
                                04-
01-Gasper  02-Heinz  03-Kerner  Klaeren  05-Leiss
---------  --------  ---------  -------  --------
ALG-1      BRU-1     I---1      LAT-1    CH--1
B---1      free      SAF-1      CYP-1    TUN-1
LIT-2      ALG-2     BRU-2      I---2    LAT-2
NL--2      B---2     TUN-2      LUX-2    CYP-2
free       LIT-3     ALG-3      BRU-3    I---4
LUX-1      VIE-3     B---3      TUN-3    SAF-3
I---3      LAT-4     LIT-4      ALG-4    NL--3
           SAF-4

           28-      07-
06-Worsch  Guest-A  Klingen  08-Smith  09-Hausen
---------  -------  -------  --------  ---------
LIT-1      D---1    ARG-1    BUL-1     SPA-1
free       free     COL-1    SIN-1     SRI-1
CH--2      free     SPA-2    ARG-2     BUL-2
SAF-2      free     free     UK--2     SIN-2
LAT-3      D---3    MAL-3    PL--3     ARG-3
CYP-3      free     TT--2    THA-3     UK--3
BRU-4      free     MAC-4    MAL-4     PL--4
TUN-4                        SRI-4     TT--4

10-       11-                    29-
Boerding  Kellermann  12-Haider  Guest-B  13-Schnepf
--------  ----------  ---------  -------  ----------
MAC-1     MAL-1       PL--1      free     H---1
UK--1     TT--1       free       free     AUS-1
PL--2     MAC-2       MAL-2      D---2    RO--2
COL-2     SRI-2       TT--3      free     free
BUL-3     SPA-3       MAC-3      free     KUW-3
SIN-3     free        SRI-3      free     SW--3
ARG-4     BUL-4       SPA-4      D---4    KOR-4
          SIN-4                           UK--4

            15-       16-
14-Joppich  Gergeleit  Kloppenburg  17-Focke
----------  ---------  -----------  --------
USA-1       IRA-1      KOR-1        KUW-1
GRE-1       HKG-1      free         SW--1
H---2       USA-2      IRA-2        KOR-2
AUS-2       GRE-2      HKG-2        THA-2
CHI-3       H---3      USA-3        IRA-3
free        AUS-3      GRE-3        HKG-3
KUW-4       RO--4      H---4        USA-4
SW--4                  THA-4

18-                   20-      21-
Huettenhain  19-Kalb  Bohn     Westermann  22-Poigne
-----------  -------  -------  ----------  ---------
RO--1        AUT-1    EST-1    CZ--1       CHI-1
THA-1        RUS-1    UKR-1    free        VIE-1
KUW-2        MON-2    AUT-2    EST-2       CZ--2
SW--2        free     RUS-2    UKR-2       free
KOR-3        GAB-3    MON-1    AUT-3       EST-3
free         free     free     RUS-3       UKR-3
IRA-4        FI--4    GAB-4    MON-4       AUT-4
VIE-4                          RUS-4

23-       24-
Giffeler  Cacutalua  25-Huhn  26-Hein   27-Widmayer
--------  ---------  -------  -------   -----------
FI--1     GAB-1      MON-3      ???        ???
free      POR-2      NL--1
CHI-2     FI--2      GAB-2
VIE-2     free       POR-1
CZ--3     RO--3      FI--3
POR-3     NL--4      free
EST-4     CZ--4      CHI-4
                     UKR-4

Evaluation Plan (Day-2)

Procedure: Execute your list sequentially. If you arrive at a nation, which currently is evaluated by another person, wait and recreate. This will happen mostly when in your list there is a "free" entry.
         20-      21-
19-Kalb  Bohn     Westermann  22-Poigne  25-Huhn
-------  -------  ----------  ---------  -------
ALG-1    BRU-1    I---1       LAT-1      CH--1
B---1    free     SAF-1       CYP-1      TUN-1
LIT-2    ALG-2    BRU-2       I---2      LAT-2
NL--2    B---2    TUN-2       LUX-2      CYP-2
free     LIT-3    ALG-3       BRU-3      I---4
LUX-1    VIE-3    B---3       TUN-3      SAF-3
I---3    LAT-4    LIT-4       ALG-4      NL--3
         SAF-4

24-        29-        13-      14-       15-
Cacutalua  Guest-B  Schnepf  Joppich  Gergeleit
---------  -------  -------  -------  ---------
LIT-1      D---1     ARG-1    BUL-1     SPA-1
free       free      COL-1    SIN-1     SRI-1
CH--2      free      SPA-2    ARG-2     BUL-2
SAF-2      free      free     UK--2     SIN-2
LAT-3      D---3     MAL-3    PL--3     ARG-3
CYP-3      free      TT--2    THA-3     UK--3
BRU-4      free      MAC-4    MAL-4     PL--4
TUN-4                         SRI-4     TT--4

    16-      17-       18-        28-
Kloppenburg  Focke  Huettenhain  Guest-A
-----------  -----  -----------  -------
   MAC-1     MAL-1     PL--1      free
   UK--1     TT--1     free       free
   PL--2     MAC-2     MAL-2      D---2
   COL-2     SRI-2     TT--3      free
   BUL-3     SPA-3     MAC-3      free
   SIN-3     free      SRI-3      free
   ARG-4     BUL-4     SPA-4      D---4
             SIN-4

07-Klingen  08-Smith  09-Hausen  10-Boerding
----------  --------  ---------  -----------
  H---1      USA-1      IRA-1       KOR-1
  AUS-1      GRE-1      HKG-1       free
  RO--2      H---2      USA-2       IRA-2
  free       AUS-2      GRE-2       HKG-2
  KUW-3      CHI-3      H---3       USA-3
  SW--3      free       AUS-3       GRE-3
  KOR-4      KUW-4      RO--4       H---4
             SW--4                  THA-4

11-Kellermann  12-Haider  01-Gasper  02-Heinz
-------------  ---------  ---------  --------
    KUW-1        RO--1      AUT-1     EST-1
    SW--1        THA-1      RUS-1     UKR-1
    KOR-2        KUW-2      MON-2     AUT-2
    THA-2        SW--2      free      RUS-2
    IRA-3        KOR-3      GAB-3     MON-1
    HKG-3        free       free      free
    USA-4        IRA-4      FI--4     GAB-4
    UK--4                   VIE-4

             04-      23-
03-Kerner  Klaeren  Giffeler  06-Worsch  05-Leiss
---------  -------  --------  ---------  --------
  CZ--1     CHI-1    FI--1      GAB-1     MON-3
  free      VIE-1    free       POR-2     NL--1
  EST-2     CZ--2    CHI-2      FI--2     GAB-2
  UKR-2     free     VIE-2      free      POR-1
  AUT-3     EST-3    CZ--3      RO--3     FI--3
  RUS-3     UKR-3    POR-3      NL--4     free
  MON-4     AUT-4    EST-4      CZ--4     CHI-4
            RUS-4                         UKR-4

4. Problems and Solutions

4.0 The Submitted Problems

All proposed problems have been taken from these submissions. The Scientific Committee felt free to tailor the problem difficulty and the story wrapped around to get for each contest day three "equally useful" proposals. The following table shows which task proposal was developed using which submitted problem:
4.1.1 Mysterious Continents     <= MON-1
4.1.2 A Mazing Workshop         <= SAF-1
4.1.3 Islands In The Sea        <= UK--1
4.2.1 Hamilton's Robot          <= BRU-1
4.2.2 Climbing A Mountain       <= CHI-2
4.2.3 Rubik's Toolkit           <= NL--1

Among all proposals to the pleasure of the Scientific Committee UK--1 and NL--1 have been prepared exemplarily well, with a detailed problem discussion and electronically readable solution and demonstrator program texts.

     CN  = Country Number
     TN  = Task Number
     TID = Task Identificator
     P   = Pages

CN Country Name    TN TID   Task Name             P
---------------------------------------------------
01 Algeria         01 ALG-1 Square Root           3
                   02 ALG-2 Triangle              1
                   03 ALG-3 Floating Point        1
                   04 ALG-4 Palindromes           1
                   05 ALG-5 Stock Management      1
                   06 ALG-6 Matrix Rotation       1
02 Argentina
03 Australia
04 Austria
05 Belgium
06 Belorussia      07 BRU-1 Travelling Robot      2
                   08 BRU-2 Pattern Matching      2
07 Bulgaria
08 Switzerland     09 CH--1 Gas Station           6
09 China           10 CHI-1 Integer Guessing      9
                   11 CHI-2 Climb the Mountain    8
10 Columbia
11 Cuba
12 Cyprus          12 CYP-1 Crossword            15
13 Czechoslowakia
14 Germany         13 D---1 Constraints Workbench 2
15 Denmark
16 Estonia
17 Finland
18 Gabun
19 Greece
20 Hungary
21 Hong Kong       14 HKG-1 6x6 TicTacToe         5
                   15 HKG-2 15 Tile Puzzle        3
22 Italy
23 Iran
24 Korea           16 KOR-1 Pancake Cutting       6
                   17 KOR-2 Consecutive Flags     4
25 Kuwait
26 Latvia
27 Lithuania       18 LIT-1 Polynomials           3
                   19 LIT-2 Auction               3
28 Luxembourg      20 LUX-1 2D Projection         4
29 Macau           21 MAC-1 Rotating Board        8
30 Malta           22 MAL-1 Bookshelve            9
31 Mexico
32 Mongolia        23 MON-1 Nice Continent        2
                   24 MON-2 Exact Result          1
33 Netherlands     25 NL--1 Rubic Cube           19
34 Poland
35 Portugal
36 Romania         26 RO--1 Expressions           2
                   27 RO--2 Bus Driver            1
37 Russia
38 South Africa    28 SAF-1 Labyrinth            10
                   29 SAF-2 Change Ringing        4
39 Singapore
40 Spain           30 SPA-1 The Turtle            4
41 Sri Lanka
42 Sweden
43 Thailand        31 THA-1 Maze                  3
44 Trinidad Tobago 32 TT--1 Customer Database     6
                   33 TT--2 Airport               4
                   34 TT--3 Indexing             12
                   35 TT--4 Hotel Elevator        8
45 Tunesia         36 TUN-1 Trains                7
                   37 TUN-2 Statistics            9
46 Turkey
47 United Kingdom  38 UK--1 Nonogram Puzzle      11
48 Ukraine         39 UKR-1 Minimal Polynom       9
                   40 UKR-2 Matrices Equivalency 13
49 United States   41 USA-1 Digital Mastermind    2
50 Viet Nam        42 VIE-1 Rotating Rings Puzzle 6
51 Zimbabwe
---------------------------------------------------

24 subm.countries, 42 submitted tasks,   pages: 230

4.1 The Proposed Problems

Structure of the Task Information

Part A: Given to the Jury in paper

	Given to the contestants in paper
	Electronically available on contest days.
	Example File Name:
	C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-TASK.TXT

01. Tasknumber

	(number-of-ioi.number-of-day.alternative)
	Example: TASK 4.1.1

02. Title

	Example: "MORE MAGIC"

03. Task Text

    a.  Domain description and definitions
    b.  Chapter title "PROBLEM STATEMENT"
		Problem statement text
		(usually with some subproblems)
    c.  Title "TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS"
		Some technical constraints,
		e.g. input and output file names.
    d.  Chapter title "EXAMPLE(S)". Example(s)
    e.  Chapter Title "CREDITS".
		Table of credits (sum equals 100)

Part B: Given to the contestants

04. Sample input and output data file(s)
Example File Names:
    C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-DATA.IN (input only)
    C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-DATA.IO (input,output)
    C:\IOI\DAY-2\423-DATA.OU (output only)

Part C: Presented to the Jury

05. Demonstrator Program
    File Name: C:\IOI\DAY-1\412-DEMO.C

06. Sample solution programs

    File Name: C:\IOI\DAY-2\422-P-P5.PAS

07. Motivation, Inside Information, Why and How

    File Name: C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-JURY.TXT

Part D: This is for the Evaluators

08. Evaluator Guide (on paper in the eval.folder)
    File Name: C:\IOI\DAY-2\423-EVAL.TXT

09. Evaluation Form (on paper in the eval.folder)

    File Name: C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-EVAL.FRM

10. Evaluation bat-procedures (on the evaluator disk)

    File Name: C:\IOI\DAY-2\421-EVAL.BAT

11. Evaluation data files (on the evaluator disk)

    File Names: C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-DAT1.IN
		C:\IOI\DAY-2\421-DAT3.IO
		C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-DAT2.OU

Part E: This is for the Committee

12. Coordinator Memo
    File Names: C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-COMM.TXT

Task 4.1.1: "Mysterious Continents"

A MAP is a 48 by 16 rectangle of COORDINATES. Two coordinates are CONNECTED if they are neighbours either in south-north or in east-west direction. Initially each coordinate is only known to be either WATER (W) or GROUND (G).

There are four Ground Types (GT): G, M, P, and C.
And there are 4 Water Types (WT): W, O, B, and L.
It is assumed that outside the map is Ocean (O).

There are certain geographic rules for changing the type of a coordinate (relabeling). It may become a:

Mountain(M):	If a GT is connected to 4 other GT.
Peninsula(P):	If a GT is connected to 3 WT,
		or to 2 WT and at least 1 P,
		or to 1 WT and at least 2 P.
Coastline(C):	If a GT is not M and not P.
Ocean(O):	If a WT is connected
		to at least one O.
Bay(B):		If an O is connected to
		at least 2 B and at most one O,
		 or to 1 B and at least 2 GT, or to
		at least 2 GT and at least one O.
Lake(L):	If a W remains unchanged till no
		other relabeling is possible
		any more.

It may happen, that after a certain coordinate has been relabeled, it can be relabeled once again later, because the types of some neighbours have changed in the meantime. A map is EXPLORED if no relabeling is possible any more.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Implement a program which does the following in that order:

  1. Read a map of an unknown continent from an ASCII input file and display it on the screen, together with the initial coordinate type statistics, as shown in Example-1.
  2. Explore the map and relabel the coordinates correctly with M, P, C, O, B, or L according to the geographic rules.
  3. Display the explored map on the screen, with the final coordinate type statistics, as shown in Example-2.
  4. Write a screen copy showing the explored map and the final coordinate type statistics to an ASCII output file.

TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS

Constraint-1: Put your solution program into an ASCII text file named

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-PROG.xxx".

Extension .xxx is:
	- .BAS	for BASIC	programs,
	- .C	for C		programs,
	- .LCN	for LOGO	programs,
	- .PAS	for Pascal	programs.

Constraint-2: The name of the ASCII input file for reading an unknown map must be

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-MAP.IN".

Constraint-3: The name of the ASCII output file for writing map and statistics must be

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-MAP.OU".

EXAMPLE(S)

Example-1: The screen display, including initial statistics, of the unknown map in file

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-MAP.IN"
should look like:
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGGGGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGWWGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGGWGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGWWGGWWWGGGWGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGGGGGGGGGGGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGGWWWGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGGWWWGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGGGWWGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGWWWGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWGGGWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
MYSTERIOUS: G=61 W=707 ALL=768
Example-2: The screen display of the explored map, including final statistics and the file
"C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-MAP.OU"
should look like:
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOCCCCCCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOCCLLCCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOCMPLCCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOCCLLCCBBBCCCBPOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOBCCCCCCCCMCCCCBOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOBCMCBBBCCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCMCBOOCCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCMMPOOCCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOBCCBOOCCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOBPBOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOBPBOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOPPPOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
EXPLORED: P=8 C=47 M=6 O=685 B=17 L=5 ALL=768
SAMPLE FILES

We provided these correct example files for your convenience:

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-MAP.IN" and
"C:\IOI\DAY-1\411-MAP.OU".
WARNING: Successful execution of your program with Example-1 above does not necessarily guarantee that your program is correct !!!

CREDITS

                                              points
Read from a file and
  display unknown map correctly			05
All Mountains correctly relabeled with M	10
All Peninsulas correctly relabeled with P	20
All Coastlines correctly relabeled with C	05
All Ocean correctly relabeled with O		10
All Bays correctly relabeled with B		20
All Lakes correctly relabeled with M		05
Initial Statistics correct			05
Final Statistics correct			10
Structure of output file correct		05
Technical constraints completely obeyed		05
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      maximal  100

Task 4.1.2: "A Mazing Workshop"

A MAZE completely covers an AREA of N times M squares. It consists of many WALL squares and of many SPACE squares, the latter of which include one ENTRY square and one TREASURE square.

A PATH is a sequence of adjacent space squares (bounded by walls) from the entry to a dead end, we refer to as an ENDPOINT. The LENGTH of a path is the number of squares it covers, including entry and endpoint.

The maze must be such that paths may fork but do not join, so for example no two paths can have the same endpoint. The entry is located somewhere at the top of the maze. The treasure is positioned at the endpoint of a path with maximal length.

The N times M area should be covered with paths as much as possible. It is nice to watch a maze growing over an area while it is computed. Because the algorithm is too fast for the eye, a DELAY TIME after each drawn square is necessary.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Implement the following set of TOOLS dealing with mazes. The tools should be executable in any order and repetition through a main menue:

TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS

Constraint-1: Represent each square by a two-character string:

Constraint-2: N and M must be greater than 2 and not larger than 20.

Constraint-3: Put your solution program into an ASCII text file named

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\412-PROG.xxx".
Extension .xxx is:
	- .BAS	for BASIC	programs,
	- .C	for C		programs,
	- .LCN	for LOGO	programs,
	- .PAS	for Pascal	programs.

Constraint-4: The name of the ASCII text file for reading and writing mazes must be

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\412-MAZE.IO".

EXAMPLES

Example-1: A screen display of sample file

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\412-MAZ1.IO"
by Tool-5 should look like:
N = 10, M = 8, DELAY TIME = 100
############. ######
######    . . ##  ##
####    ##. ##    ##
##    ##  . . ##  ##
##  ##    ##. .   ##
####    ##  ##. ####
##    ##T . . .   ##
####################
LENGTH = 13

Example-2: The same maze's file output by Tool-4 should look like:

10   8
############  ######
######        ##  ##
####    ##  ##    ##
##    ##      ##  ##
##  ##    ##      ##
####    ##  ##  ####
##    ##T         ##
####################

SAMPLE FILES

We provided these correct example files for your convenience:

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\412-MAZ1.IO" and
"C:\IOI\DAY-1\412-MAZ2.IO".
WARNING: Successful execution of your program with these examples does not necessarily guarantee that your program is correct !!!

CREDITS

                                                      points
Main menue with all tools available			05
Tools available in any order and repetition		10
Tool-1 enables setting N and M				05
Tool-2 enables setting DELAY TIME			05
Tool-3 computes structurally correct mazes		30
Tool-3 displays the maze while it is growing		10
Tool-4 writes maze to a file exactly as in example2	05
Tool-5 reads unknown maze and highlights path		20
Technical constraints completely obeyed			10
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              maximal  100

Task 4.1.3: "Islands in the Sea"

has been selected

Task 4.2.1: "Hamilton's Robot"

On a plane there are given N positions P1, P2, ..., PN with integer coordinates (X1,Y1), ..., (XN,YN).

A robot should move through all these positions starting at P1. It should come to each position only once with the exception of P1 which also has to be the position at the end of the tour.

There are constraints on the robot's movements. It can only move along straight lines. From P1 it can start in any direction. Reaching one of the Pi, before moving on to another position it must turn 90 degrees either to the left or to the right.

A robot program consists of five types of statements:

1. "ORIENTATION XkYk":
usable as the first statement only. The robot turns to the direction of the position Pk (k between 2 and N).

2. "MOVE-TO Xj Yj":
if the robot can reach Pj without changing its current orientation, then it moves to the position Pj (j between 1 and N). Otherwise the statement is not executable.

3. "TURN-LEFT":
the robot changes its orientation 90 degrees to the left.

4. "TURN-RIGHT":
the robot changes its orientation 90 degr. to the right.

5. "STOP":
deactivates the robot. This is the necessary last statement of each robotprogram.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Implement a program that does the following:

  1. Read the value of N and the coordinates for N given positions from an ASCII input file (see Example) and display the data on the screen.

  2. Develop a robot program for a valid tour through all positions (as defined above) if one exists.

  3. If there is no possible tour, the robot program must consist just of the "STOP"-statement.

  4. Display on the screen, whether a tour is possible or not and, if there exists one, its length (rounded, 2 digits after the decimal point). The length of a tour the sum of the lengths of the straight line pieces.

  5. Write the robot program to an ASCII output file exactly as is shown in Example.

TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS

Constraint-1: Put your solution program into an ASCII text file named

"C:\IOI\DAY-2\421-PROG.xxx".
Extension .xxx is:
	- .BAS	for BASIC	programs,
	- .C	for C		programs,
	- .LCN	for LOGO	programs,
	- .PAS	for Pascal	programs.
Constraint-2: The name of he ASCII input file for reading the positions from must be
"C:\IOI\DAY-2\421-ROBO.IN".
Constraint-3: The name of the ASCII output file for writing the robot program to must be
"C:\IOI\DAY-2\421-ROBO.OU".
Constraint-4: Program must reject inputs where N is less than 4 or greater than 16, without trying to find a tour!

EXAMPLE(S)

Input: An input file contains in the first line the value for N and in the following N lines the X and Y coordinates of the selected positions, for example:

		4
		2 -2
		0 2
		-1 -1
		3 1
Output: For these 4 positions one shortest robot program with length = 12.65 is:
		ORIENTATION 3 1
		MOVE-TO 3 1
		TURN-LEFT
		MOVE-TO 0 2
		TURN-LEFT
		MOVE-TO -1 -1
		TURN-LEFT
		MOVE-TO 2 -2
		STOP
SAMPLE FILES

We provide these correct files with the above input and output for your convenience:

"C:\IOI\DAY-2\421-ROBO.IN" and
"C:\IOI\DAY-2\421-ROBO.OU".
WARNING: Successful execution of your program with this example does not necessarily guarantee that your program is correct !!!

CREDITS

                                                      points
Read data correctly from every file and display it	05
Algorithm for computing a valid tour ok			30
Generated robot program syntactically correct,
   if tour does not exist				10
Generated robot program syntactically correct,
   if tour does exist					15
Screen display gives all required information		05
Displayed length of computed tour correct		10
Robot program correctly written to a file		10
Technical constraints obeyed				15
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               maximal 100

Task 4.2.2: "Climbing a Mountain"

has been selected

Task 4.2.3: "Rubik's Toolkit"

This problem is based on the puzzle game "Rubik's cube".

If you already know Rubik's cube you may skip this paragraph and the next one. Rubik's cube is a cube that consists of 3 x 3 x 3 smaller cubes. Initially each of the six faces of Rubik's cube is coloured uniformly in a different colour; we call this the initial cube. Every face of Rubik's cube consists of 3 x 3 faces of a layer of nine smaller cubes.

Imagine you are looking at any of the six faces of Rubik's cube. The layer of 3 x 3 smaller cubes you see can be rotated by a multiple of 90 degrees, where the axis of rotation is orthogonal to the face and goes through its centre. The result is another 3 x 3 x 3 cube where the colour pattern of the face you are looking at has been rotated and the colour patterns of the four neighbouring faces have changed.

In our problem the faces of the cube are given names instead of colours: U=Up, R=Right, F=Front, B=Back, L=Left and D=Down. Any move sequence to turn the cube may be described as a string of the letters {U, R, F, B, L, D} where each letter stands for a basic rotation: the 90 degrees clockwise rotation of the corresponding face.

PROBLEM STATEMENT with EXAMPLE(S)

Write a program that allows the user to repeatedly solve any of the given three subproblems in any order. You may assume that the length of each input string is at most 35.

  1. This subproblem is the translation of a given move sequence into a move sequence where no primitive rotation is applied more than 3 times in sequence. Your algorithm should reject non-legal input sequences. Some examples are provided for clearness:
    	Input                 Output

    L --> L LL --> LL LLL --> LLL LLLL --> "the empty sequence" LLLLL --> L LLRRRFFFFRLB --> LLLB HELLO --> "error"

  2. The second subproblem is to find out whether two given move sequences yield the same result when applied to the initial cube. The examples may illustrate this:
    	Input,                 Input,         Output
    	1st sequence           2nd sequence
    	RL                     LR             yes
    	RU                     UR             no
    	RRFFRRFFRRFFRRFF       FFRRFFRR       yes
    	RRFFRRFFRRFFRRFF       RRFFRRFF       no
    

  3. The third subproblem is to determine how many times a given move sequence has to be applied to the initial cube until the cube is in its initial state again. The smallest such number greater zero is sought.

    We provide some examples:

    		Input     Output
    
    		L             4
    		DD            2
    		BLUB         36
    		RUF          80
    		BLUFF       180
    

TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS

Constraint-1: Put your solution program into an ASCII text file named

"C:\IOI\DAY-2\423-PROG.xxx".
Extension .xxx is:
	- .BAS	for BASIC	programs,
	- .C	for C		programs,
	- .LCN	for LOGO	programs,
	- .PAS	for Pascal	programs.

SAMPLE FILES

none

CREDITS

                                              points
Main menu and user dialogue o.k.		15
Subproblem 1: Transformation o.k.		20
	Rejects wrong inputs			10
Subproblem 2: Correctness			25
Subproblem 3: Correctness			25
Technical constraints obeyed			05
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       maximal 100

4.2 The First Selected Problem

with Best Solutions

Day 1: "Islands in the Sea"

The SEA is represented by an N times N grid. The task is to reconstruct a MAP of islands only from some CODED INFORMATION about the horizontal and vertical distribution of the islands. To illustrate this code, consider the following map:
		*   * *       1 2
		  * * *   *   3 1
		*   *   *     1 1 1
		  * * * * *   5
		* *   *   *   2 1 1
		      *       1

		1 1 4 2 2 1
		1 2   3   2
		1

The numbers on the right of each row represent the order and size of the groups of islands in that rows. For example, "1 2" in the first row means that this row contains a group of one island followed by a group of two islands; with sea of arbitrary length to the left and right of each island group. Similarly, the sequence "1 1 1" below the first column means that this column contains three groups with one island each, etc.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Implement a program which repeats the following steps until a given input file containing several information blocks has been read completely:

  1. Read the next information block from an ASCII input file (for the data structure of that file see also the examples below) and display it on the screen. Each information block consists of the size of the square grid, followed by the row constraints and the column constraints. Each constraint for a single row or column appears on a single line as a sequence of numbers separated by spaces and terminated by 0.

  2. Reconstruct the map (or all of the maps, if more then one solution is possible, see Example-4) and display it/them on the screen.

  3. Write the map(s) to the end of an ASCII output file. Each blank must be represented by a pair of spaces. Each island should be represented by a '*' followed by a space. Different maps satisfying the same constraints should be separated by a blank line. If there is no map satisfying the constraints, indicate it by a line saying "no map". The solutions to the different information blocks must be separated by a line saying "next problem".

TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS

Constraint-1: N must be not less than 1 and not larger than 8.

Constraint-2: Put your solution program into an ASCII text file named

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-PROG.xxx".
Extension .xxx is:
	- .BAS	for BASIC	programs,
	- .C	for C		programs,
	- .LCN	for LOGO	programs,
	- .PAS	for Pascal	programs.

Constraint-3: The name of the ASCII input file for reading the coded information from must be

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-SEAS.IN".
Constraint-4: The name of the ASCII output file for writing the map(s) to must be
"C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-SEAS.OU".
EXAMPLES

Example-1 (the problem above):

	6        6 is the size of the grid.
	1 2 0    <-- Start of the first line constraint
	3 1 0
	1 1 1 0
	5 0
	2 1 1 0
	1 0
	1 1 1 0  <-- Start of the first colm constraint
	1 2 0
	4 0
	2 3 0
	2 0
	1 2 0
Example-2. Solution:
	4        columns:  1  2  3  	4
	0        row 1:
	1 0      row 2:       *
	2 0      row 3:    *  *
	0        row 4:
	0
	1 0
	2 0
	0
Example-3.
	2        Note that there is no map
	0        satisfying the constraints.
	0
	2 0
	2 0 	
Example-4.

Note that there are two different maps

	1 0      satisfying the constraints.
	1 0
	1 0
	1 0 	
SAMPLE FILES

We provided these correct example files for your convenience:

"C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-SEAS.IN" and
"C:\IOI\DAY-1\413-SEAS.OU".
WARNING: Successful execution of your program with these examples does not necessarily guarantee that your program is correct !!!

CREDITS

                                              points
Read an information block from
the input file and display it			05
Process all information blocks one by one
until the input file is read completely		00
Reconstruct one map for each information
block (if it has a solution) and display it	35
Write the solution map to the output file	05
Reconstruct all possible maps (if there
are several solutions) and display them		20
Write all solution maps correctly
separated to the output file			10
Identify information blocks having no solution	05
Technical constraints completely obeyed		10
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       maximal 100

One of the Best Solutions of Day 1

The problem can be recognized as simular to the well konwn two person game "Destroy Ships". The objects asked for are very similar but the information gaining is different.

The problem is solved using recursion and backtracking. The procedure find_maps assigns an island mark or an empty mark to the actual field and calls itself recursively in order to assign to the next field. If all fields could be assigned successfully according to the given constraints, the map will be shown and the recursion will be backtracked by restoring the old values. By this exhausting recursion and backtracking process it is garanted that all solutions will be found.

Description of the program:

The algorithm is described in a semi formal manner:

	  read the data;
	  solve the problem.
	
	  read the data: 	
	    for all rows
	      read data and check its correctness.

	  solve the problem:
	    initialize pointers to the the field;
	    start with the first field;
	    search map.

	  search map: 	
	    if map complete
	       draw map;
	    if empty mark will fit to the current field
	       assign empty mark;
	       next field;
	       search map;
	       backtrack restoring the old value;
	    if island mark will fit 	to the current field
	       assign island mark;
	       next field;
	       search map;
	       backtrack restoring the old value.
Protokoll of a run:
		4
		2 0
		2 0
		2 0
		2 0
		2 0
		2 0
		2 0
		2 0

		  1 2 3 4
		1     * *
		2     * *
		3 * *
		4 * *

		  1 2 3 4 	
		1 * *
		2 * *
		3     * *
		4     * *

Program in Pascal

PROGRAM IOI92_Day_1_Islands_in_the_sea;
{ Author: Matej Ondrusek, CZ }
 USES crt;

 TYPE line=ARRAY[0..5] OF integer;
	{ line of input file }
 VAR inp,out:text;	{ input,output file }
     n:integer;	{ number of rows/collums }
     row,col:ARRAY[1..8] OF line;
    	{ rows, columns information }
     rp,cp,rs,cs:ARRAY[1..8] OF integer;
    	{ r/c pointer, r/c start }
     map:ARRAY[1..8,1..8] OF integer;  { map of sea }
     nomap:boolean;	{ no map can be found }
    	{ at least one map found }

 { Read one block of input file }

 PROCEDURE readinput;
  VAR i,j:integer;

  { If there is some mistake in input file ... }

  PROCEDURE eiif;
  BEGIN
   clrscr;
   writeln(#7,'Error in input file !');
   halt
  END;

  { Read one line of informations from input line }

  PROCEDURE readline(VAR a:line; VAR s:integer);
   VAR j:integer;
  BEGIN
   a[0]:=-1;
   s:=n+2;
   j:=1;
   IF eoln(inp) THEN eiif;
   read(inp,a[j]);
   WHILE a[j]>0 DO
    BEGIN
     IF j=5 THEN eiif;
     write(a[j],' ');
     s:=s-1-a[j];
     j:=j+1;
     IF eoln(inp) THEN eiif;
     read(inp,a[j]);
    END;
   writeln('0');
   readln(inp);
   IF s=n+2 THEN s:=n+1;
   IF a[j]<0 THEN eiif;
   IF s<1 THEN nomap:=true;
  END;

 BEGIN
  IF eoln(inp) THEN eiif;
  readln(inp,n); writeln(n);
  IF (n>8) OR (n<1) THEN
   BEGIN
    writeln('N is out of range !');
    halt;
   END;
  FOR i:=1 TO n DO readline(row[i],rs[i]);
  FOR i:=1 TO n DO readline(col[i],cs[i]);
  readln(inp);
  IF ioresult<>0 THEN eiif;
  {$i+}
  writeln; writeln('Press any key to continue.'); writeln;
  WHILE readkey=#0 DO;
 END;

 { Write map to the screen and to the output file }

 PROCEDURE write_map;
  VAR i,j:integer;
 BEGIN
  IF found THEN writeln(out);
  found:=true;
  write('  ');
  FOR i:=1 TO n DO write(i,' '); writeln;
  FOR i:=1 TO n DO
   BEGIN
    write(i,' ');
    FOR j:=1 TO n DO
     IF map[i,j]=1
     THEN BEGIN write('* '); write(out,'* '); END
     ELSE BEGIN write('  '); write(out,'  '); END;
    writeln; writeln(out);
   END;
  writeln; writeln('Press any key to continue.');
  writeln;
  WHILE readkey=#0 DO;
 END;

 { Recurrent procedure for reconstructing maps.
   It puts space or island on the r/c position
   (if possible) and calls itself for next position }

 PROCEDURE find_maps(r,c:integer);
  VAR rc,cc:boolean;
 BEGIN
  IF c=n+1 THEN
   BEGIN
    r:=r+1; c:=1;
   END;
  IF r=n+1 THEN
   BEGIN
    write_map;
    exit;
   END;

  { Try to put space on this position }

  IF ((row[r,rp[r]]=0) OR (row[r,rp[r]]=-1) AND
     (rs[r]>c)) AND
     ((col[c,cp[c]]=0) OR (col[c,cp[c]]=-1) AND
     (cs[c]>r)) THEN
   BEGIN
    map[r,c]:=0; rc:=false; cc:=false;
    IF row[r,rp[r]]=0 THEN
       BEGIN inc(rs[r]); rc:=true; row[r,rp[r]]:=-1
       END;
    IF col[c,cp[c]]=0 THEN
       BEGIN inc(cs[c]); cc:=true; col[c,cp[c]]:=-1
       END;
    find_maps(r,c+1);
    IF rc
    THEN BEGIN row[r,rp[r]]:=0; dec(rs[r]) END;
    IF cc
    THEN BEGIN col[c,cp[c]]:=0; dec(cs[c]) END;
   END;

  { Try to put island on this position }

  IF ((row[r,rp[r]]>0) OR (row[r,rp[r]]=-1) AND
     (rs[r]<=n)) AND
     ((col[c,cp[c]]>0) OR (col[c,cp[c]]=-1) AND
     (cs[c]<=n)) THEN
   BEGIN
    map[r,c]:=1; rc:=false; cc:=false;
    inc(rs[r]); inc(cs[c]);
    IF row[r,rp[r]]=-1
    THEN BEGIN rc:=true; inc(rp[r]) END;
    IF col[c,cp[c]]=-1
    THEN BEGIN cc:=true; inc(cp[c]) END;
    dec(row[r,rp[r]]); dec(col[c,cp[c]]);
    find_maps(r,c+1);
    inc(row[r,rp[r]]); inc(col[c,cp[c]]);
    IF rc THEN dec(rp[r]);
    IF cc THEN dec(cp[c]);
    dec(rs[r]); dec(cs[c]);
   END;

 END;

 { This is the main one-problem solving procedure }

 PROCEDURE solveproblem;
  VAR i:integer;

 BEGIN
  writeln(out,'next problem');
  FOR i:=1 TO n DO
   BEGIN
    rp[i]:=0; cp[i]:=0;
   END;
  found:=false;
  IF not nomap THEN find_maps(1,1);
  IF not found THEN
   BEGIN
    writeln('No map!'); writeln(out,'no map');
    writeln; writeln('Press any key to continue.');
    WHILE readkey=#0 DO;
   END;
 END;

BEGIN
 assign(inp,'c:\ioi\day-1\413-seas.in'); reset(inp);
 assign(out,'c:\ioi\day-1\413-seas.ou');
 rewrite(out);

 { This is the main repetition
   - UNTIL the input file is read completely }

 WHILE not eof(inp) DO
  BEGIN
   nomap:=false;
   clrscr;
   readinput;
   solveproblem;
  END;

 close(inp);
 close(out);

END.

Program in C

/***************************************************

  Shawn Smith   7/15/92   Day 1  "Islands in the Sea"
****************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>

#define SEASIN "413-SEAS.IN"
#define SEASOU "413-SEAS.OU"
#define bputc(ch) (putchar(ch),putc(ch,fileout))
#define bprintf(str)
 (printf(str),fprintf(fileout,str))
#define PAUSE()
 ( printf("hit any key for the next problem\n"),  \
		  getch() == 'q' ? exit(0) : 0)
#define placespace(xpos,ypos,xislpos,spaceleft) \
	(spaceleft == 0 || left[xpos][ypos] > 0 ? 0 :    \
	    searchrow(xpos+1,ypos,xislpos,spaceleft-1))

int xisls[5][9],numxisls[9],yisls[5][8],
    numyisls[8],gridsize;
int curyisl[8][9],left[8][9],spaces[9];
int successcount;
FILE *filein,*fileout;

main()
{
  if((filein = fopen(SEASIN,"r")) == NULL)
    printf("error opening %s\n",SEASIN),exit(1);
  if((fileout = fopen(SEASOU,"w")) == NULL)
    printf("error opening %s\n",SEASOU),exit(1);

  while(readblock() == 0) {
    collectrowstats();
    initfirstrow();
    successcount = 0;
    searchrow(0,0,0,spaces[0]);
    if(successcount == 0)
      bprintf("no map\n");
    PAUSE();
  }

  fclose(fileout);
  fclose(filein);
}

readblock()
{
  int i,j,count;

  if(fscanf(filein,"%d",&gridsize) == EOF)
    return -1;
  bprintf("next problem\n");

  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++) {
    fscanf(filein,"%d",&xisls[0][i]);
    for(count=0; xisls[count][i] > 0; count++)
      fscanf(filein,"%d",&xisls[count+1][i]);
    numxisls[i] = count;
  }
  numxisls[gridsize] = 0;
  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++) {
    fscanf(filein,"%d",&yisls[0][i]);
    for(count=0; yisls[count][i] > 0; count++)
      fscanf(filein,"%d",&yisls[count+1][i]);
    numyisls[i] = count;
  }

  printf("grid size: %d\n",gridsize);
  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++) {
    printf("row #%d:",i+1);
    for(j=0; j < numxisls[i]; j++)
      printf(" %d",xisls[j][i]);
    printf(" 0\n");
  }
  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++) {
    printf("col #%d:",i+1);
    for(j=0; j < numyisls[i]; j++)
      printf(" %d",yisls[j][i]);
    printf(" 0\n");
  }
  return 0;
}

collectrowstats()
{
  int i,j,sum;

  for(i=0; i <= gridsize; i++) {
    for(sum=j=0; j < numxisls[i]; j++)
      sum += xisls[j][i];
    spaces[i] = gridsize-sum;
  }
}

initfirstrow()
{
  int i;

  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++) {
    left[i][0] = -1;
    curyisl[i][0] = 0;
  }
}

searchrow(int xpos,int ypos,int xislpos,
          int spaceleft)
{

  if(xpos == gridsize && spaceleft > 0) return;
  else if(xpos == gridsize && ypos < gridsize) {
    propagaterow(ypos);
    searchrow(0,ypos+1,0,spaces[ypos+1]);
  }
  else if(xpos == gridsize) success();
  else if(xislpos == numxisls[ypos] ||
       left[xpos][ypos] == 0)
    placespace(xpos,ypos,xislpos,spaceleft);
  else if(left[xpos][ypos] > 0)
    placeisland(xpos,ypos,xislpos,spaceleft);
  else {
    placeisland(xpos,ypos,xislpos,spaceleft);
    placespace(xpos,ypos,xislpos,spaceleft);
  }
}

placeisland(int xpos,int ypos,int xislpos,
            int spaceleft)
{
  int i,changed = 0;

  for(i=0; i < xisls[xislpos][ypos]; i++,xpos++)
    if(xpos == gridsize || left[xpos][ypos] == 0 ||
       curyisl[xpos][ypos] >= numyisls[xpos])
      goto restore;
    else if(left[xpos][ypos] == -1) {
      left[xpos][ypos] =
        yisls[curyisl[xpos][ypos]][xpos];
      changed |= 1 << i;
    }
  if(xpos < gridsize)
    placespace(xpos,ypos,xislpos+1,spaceleft);
  else
    searchrow(xpos,ypos,xislpos+1,spaceleft);

restore:
  for(i--,xpos--; i >= 0; i--,xpos--)
    if((changed >> i) & 1)
      left[xpos][ypos] = -1;
}

/*
placespace(int xpos,int ypos,int xislpos,
           int spaceleft)
{
  if(spaceleft > 0 && left[xpos][ypos] <= 0)
    searchrow(xpos+1,ypos,xislpos,spaceleft-1);
}
*/

propagaterow(int ypos)
{
  int i;

  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++) {
    left[i][ypos+1] = left[i][ypos] > 0 ?
    left[i][ypos]-1 : -1;
    curyisl[i][ypos+1] = curyisl[i][ypos] +
    (left[i][ypos] == 1 ? 1 : 0);
  }
}

success()
{
  int i,j;

  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++)
    if(curyisl[i][gridsize] != numyisls[i])
      return;

  if(successcount > 0)
    bputc('\n');

  for(i=0; i < gridsize; i++) {
    for(j=0; j < gridsize; j++) {
      bputc(left[j][i] > 0 ? '*' : ' ');
      bputc(' ');
    }
    bputc('\n');
  }
  successcount++;
}

4.3 The Second Selected Problem

with Best Solutions

Day 2: "Climbing a Mountain"

A mountain climbers club has P members, numbered from 1 to P. Every member climbs at the same speed and there is no difference in speed between climbing up and down. Climber number i consumes C(i) units of SUPPLIES per day and can carry at most S(i) such units. All C(i) and S(i) are integer numbers.

Assume that a climber with a sufficient amount of supplies would need N days to reach the top of the mountain. The mountain may be too high, so that a single climber cannot carry all the necessary supplies. Therefore a GROUP of climbers starts at the same place and at the same time. A climber who descends prematurely before reaching the top gives his unneeded supplies to other climbers. The climbers do not rest during the expedition.

The PROBLEM is to plan a schedule for the climbing club. At least one climber must reach the top of the mountain and all climbers of the selected group return to the starting point.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Implement a program which does the following:

  1. Read from the keyboard the integer number N of days needed to arrive at the top, the number P of climbers in the club, and (for all i from 1 to P) the numbers S(i) and C(i). You may assume that the inputs are integers. Reject inputs that make no sense.

  2. Try to find a schedule for climbing the mountain. Determine a possible group a(1), ..., a(k) of climbers who should participate in the party and (for all j from 1 to k) the number M(j) of supplies which climber a(j) carries at the start. Note that there may not exist a schedule for all combinations of N and the S(i) and C(i).

  3. Output the following information on the screen:

  4. A schedule is OPTIMAL if

TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS

Constraint-1: Put your solution program into an ASCII text file named

"C:\IOI\DAY-2\422-PROG.xxx".
Extension .xxx is:
	- .BAS	for BASIC	programs,
	- .C	for C		programs,
	- .LCN	for LOGO	programs,
	- .PAS	for Pascal	programs.
Constraint-2: Programs must reject inputs where N is less than 1 or greater than 100. P must be not less than 1 and not greater than 20.

EXAMPLE(S)

The following could be a dialogue with your program:

	Days to arrive to top:  4
	Number of club members: 5
	Maximal supply for climber 1 : 7
	Daily consumption for climber 1 : 1
	Maximal supply for climber 2 : 8
	Daily consumption for climber 2 : 2
	Maximal supply for climber 3 : 12
	Daily consumption for climber 3 : 2
	Maximal supply for climber 4 : 15
	Daily consumption for climber 4 : 3
	Maximal supply for climber 5 : 7
	Daily consumption for climber 5 : 1

	2 climbers needed,
	total amount of supplies is 10.
	Climber(s) 1, 5 will go.
	Climber 1 carries 7 and descends after 4 day(s)
	Climber 5 carries 3 and descends after 1 day(s)

	Plan another party (Y/N) Y

	Days to arrive to top:  2
	Number of club members: 1
	Maximal supply for climber 1 : 3
	Daily consumption for climber 1 : 1
	Climbing party impossible.
	Plan another party (Y/N) N

	Good bye
SAMPLE FILES

For your convenience, some files containing test data and correct sample output have been prepared; please look into the directory "C:\IOI\DAY-2". WARNING: Successful execution of your program with these examples does not necessarily guarantee that your program is correct !!!

CREDITS

                                                      points
User dialogue as illustrated above			10
Find a solution for the special case where
   all C(i)=1 and and all S(i) are equal		20
Find a solution for general case			20
Find a nearly optimal solution for general case		30
Detect unsolvable situations				10
Technical constraints obeyed				10
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               maximal 100

One of the Best Solutions of Day 2

The problem remembers to the task to prepare a timeschedule for a school or similar coordination problems.

The problem will be solved using a backtracking technique.

During input of data the climbers are classified by daily consumption, so that two climbers of the same daily consumption belong to the same group. The number of such groups is kept in the variable "g". Each group is sorted by the carrying facility of the group members. By this way a tree structure is produced.

In order to solve the problem each group sends the first climber. In a recursive search using the procedure findnextclimber it is computed how far the selected climber will come and how much additional food units he needs. If the goal is not yet reached the next climber of the team is selected by calling the procedure findnextclimber indirect recursively via the procedure useclimbergroup.

Description of the program:

The algorithm is described in a semi formal manner:

	  read the data;
	  solve the problem.

	  read the data:
	    read data;
	    classify the climbers;
	    sort by daily consumption within the classes.

	  solve the problem:
	    initialize;
	    for i from 1 to g use climber group (i);
	    output the best result.

	    use climber group:
	      find next climber.

	      find next climber:
	        compute the number of additional food units needed;
	        if the problem is totaly solved
	           then actualize the best solution;
	           else use climber group.
Protocoll of the run:
	Days to arrive to top: 4
	Number of club members: 5
	Maximal supply for climber 1: 7
	Daily consumption for climber 1: 1
	Maximal supply for climber 2: 8
	Daily consumption for climber 2: 2
	Maximal supply for climber 3: 12
	Daily consumption for climber 3: 2
	Maximal supply for climber 4: 15
	Daily consumption for climber 4: 3
	Maximal supply for climber 5: 7
	Daily consumption for climber 5: 1
	
	2 climbers needed,
	total amount of supplies is 10.
	Climber(s) 1, 5 will go.
	Climber 5 carries 7 and descends after 4 day(s)
	Climber 1 carries 3 and descends after 1 day(s)

	Plan another party (Y/N) Y

	Days to arrive to top: 2
	Number of club members: 1
	Maximal supply for climber 1: 3
	Daily consumption for climber 1: 1
	Climbing party impossible.

	Plan another party (Y/N) N

	Good bye

Program in Pascal

PROGRAM IOI92_2_climbing_party;
{ Author: Matej Ondrusek, CZ }

 USES crt;

 CONST maxp=20;	{ max. number of members }
       maxn=100;	{ max. days }

 VAR  z:char;
      correct:boolean;
      n,p:integer;	{ days, members }
      s,c:array[0..maxp] of integer;
     	{ max supplies, consumation }
      cg,cp:array[1..maxp] of integer;
     	{ cons.groups, cg pointers }
      party,bparty:array[1..maxp] of integer;
     	{ actual/best return's days }
      ds:array[0..maxn] of integer;
     	{ left supplies on days }
      dp:integer;	{ days pointer }
      supplies,bsupplies:integer;
     	{ used/best party use supplies}
      climbers,bclimbers:integer;
     	{ actual/best number of clim. }
      msupplies:integer;	{ minus supplies }
      g:integer;	{ number of groups }
      i:integer;

 { ************************************************ }
 { ****** This procedure is the input dialog ****** }
 { ************************************************ }

 PROCEDURE readdata;
  VAR i,j,l:integer;
 BEGIN
  {$i-}
  REPEAT
   write('Days to arrive to top: '); readln(n);
   IF ioresult<>0 THEN exit;
   IF (n<1) OR (n>100) THEN
    BEGIN
     writeln(' Oops! n, is out of range (1..100) !');
     writeln(' Maybe, next time it''ll be OK ...');
     writeln;
    END;
  UNTIL (n>=1) AND (n<=100);

  REPEAT
   write('Number of club members: '); readln(p);
   IF ioresult<>0 THEN exit;
   IF (p<1) THEN
    BEGIN
     writeln(' Your club doesnt have many members.');
     writeln;
    END;
   IF (p>20) THEN
    BEGIN
     writeln('  So many climbers !');
     writeln('  It''s nice, but not allowed.');
     writeln;
    END;
  UNTIL (p>=1) AND (p<=20);

  g:=0;
  FOR i:=1 TO p DO
   BEGIN
    REPEAT
     write('Maximal supply FOR climber ',i,' : ');
     readln(s[i]);
     IF ioresult<>0 THEN exit;
     IF (s[i]<0) THEN
      BEGIN
       writeln('  I think, it cannot be negative.');
       writeln;
      END;
     IF (s[i]=0) THEN
      BEGIN
       writeln('  It''s strange, but OK.');
       writeln('  Maybe, it''s only a child ...');
      END;
    UNTIL s[i]>=0;

    REPEAT
     write('Daily consumption for climber ',i,' : ');
     readln(c[i]);
     IF ioresult<>0 THEN exit;
     IF (c[i]<1) THEN
      BEGIN
       writeln(' climber should eat at least 1.');
       writeln;
      END;
    UNTIL c[i]>=1;

    j:=1; WHILE (j<=g)AND(c[cp[j]]<>c[i]) DO j:=j+1;

    IF j>g THEN
     BEGIN
      g:=g+1;
      cp[j]:=i;
      cg[i]:=0;
     END
    ELSE IF s[i]>=s[cp[j]] THEN
     BEGIN cg[i]:=cp[j]; cp[j]:=i END
    ELSE BEGIN
     l:=cp[j];
     WHILE s[cg[l]]>s[i] DO l:=cg[l];
     cg[i]:=cg[l];
     cg[l]:=i;
    END;
   END;
  {$i+}
  correct:=true;
 END;

 { ************************************************ }
 { ***** This is only forward declaration ... ***** }
 { ************************************************ }

 PROCEDURE useclimbergroup(g:integer); FORWARD;

 { ************************************************ }
 { * This procedure finds next day to be computed * }
 { * and then it tries to use all climbers        * }
 { * on the top of groups.                        * }
 { ************************************************ }

 PROCEDURE findnextclimber;
  VAR i,dps:integer;
 BEGIN
  dps:=dp;
  WHILE (dp>0) AND (ds[dp]<=0) DO
   BEGIN
    ds[dp-1]:=ds[dp-1]+ds[dp];
    dp:=dp-1;
   END;
  IF dp=0 THEN
   BEGIN
    IF (climbers<bclimbers) OR (climbers=bclimbers)
       AND (supplies<bsupplies)
     THEN BEGIN
      bclimbers:=climbers;
      bsupplies:=supplies;
      msupplies:=ds[0];
      bparty:=party;
     END;
    END
   ELSE
    FOR i:=1 TO g DO
     IF cp[i]>0 THEN useclimbergroup(i);
   WHILE dp<dps DO
    BEGIN
     ds[dp]:=ds[dp]-ds[dp+1];
     dp:=dp+1;
    END;
 END;

 { ************************************************ }
 { * This procedure puts the best climber         * }
 { * from group g into expedition.                * }
 { ************************************************ }

 PROCEDURE useclimbergroup(g:integer);
  VAR cn:integer;
 BEGIN
  cn:=cp[g];
  IF (dp+1)*c[cn]<=s[cn] THEN
   BEGIN
    cp[g]:=cg[cn];
    party[cn]:=dp;
    climbers:=climbers+1;
    supplies:=supplies+2*dp*c[cn];
    ds[dp]:=ds[dp]-s[cn]+(dp+1)*c[cn];
    FOR i:=1 TO dp-1 DO ds[i]:=ds[i]+c[cn];

    findnextclimber;

    FOR i:=1 TO dp-1 DO ds[i]:=ds[i]-c[cn];
    ds[dp]:=ds[dp]+s[cn]-(dp+1)*c[cn];
    supplies:=supplies-2*dp*c[cn];
    climbers:=climbers-1;
    party[cn]:=0;
    cp[g]:=cn;
   END;
 END;

 { ************************************************ }
 { * This is the main one-problem solving procedure }
 { ************************************************ }

 PROCEDURE solveproblem;
  VAR i,j:integer;
 BEGIN

  bclimbers:=maxp+1;
  climbers:=0; supplies:=0;
  FOR i:=0 TO n DO ds[i]:=0;
  dp:=n;
  FOR i:=1 TO p DO party[i]:=0;

  FOR i:=1 TO g DO useclimbergroup(i);

  writeln;
  IF bclimbers=maxp+1 THEN
   BEGIN
    writeln('Climbing party impossible.');
    exit;
   END;
  j:=1; WHILE bparty[j]=0 DO j:=j+1;
  FOR i:=j+1 TO p DO
   IF (bparty[i]>0) AND (bparty[i]<bparty[j])
    THEN j:=i;
  write  (bclimbers);
  write  (' climbers needed,');
  write  (' total amount of supplies is ');
  writeln(bsupplies,'.');
  write('climber(s)');
  FOR i:=1 TO p DO
   IF bparty[i]>0 THEN write(' ',i,',');
  writeln(#8,' will go.');
  FOR i:=1 TO p DO
   IF (i<>j) AND (bparty[i]>0) THEN writeln
    ('Climber ',i,' carries ',s[i],
     ' and descends after ',bparty[i],' days');
  write  ('Climber ',j,' carries ',s[j]+msupplies);
  writeln(' and descends after ',
          bparty[j],' day(s)');
 END;

BEGIN
 s[0]:=0; c[0]:=0;
 clrscr;
 REPEAT
  correct:=false;
  REPEAT
   readdata;
   IF not correct THEN
    BEGIN
     writeln('  Only integers, please ?!?');
     writeln;
    END;
  UNTIL correct;
  solveproblem;
  REPEAT
   writeln; write('Plan another party (Y/N) ');
   readln(z);
  UNTIL z in ['y','n','Y','N'];
 UNTIL (z='n') OR (z='N');
 writeln;
 writeln('Good bye');
 writeln;
END.

Program in C

/****************************************************
  Shawn Smith   7/17/92   IOI "Climbing a Mountain"
****************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<search.h>
#include<math.h>

#define divup(a,b)
 ((int)ceil((double)(a)/(double)(b)))

struct HIKE {
  int number,carries,descends,C,S;
  /* I swapped C and S by accident */
} hike[20],best[20];

int timeabort;
int bestP,bestC,curP,curC,
    index[20],unused[20],maxindex;
int Ndays,Pclimbers;
FILE *filein;

main()
{
  int yn;

  do {
    readinfo();
    findunique();
    resetbest();
    planperson(Ndays,0,0,0,0);
    printbest();

    printf("\nPlan another party (Y/N)? ");
    while(kbhit()) getch();
    yn = getch();
  } while(yn == 'y' || yn == 'Y');
}

readinfo()
{
  int i;

  printf("\n\nDays to arrive to top: ");
  scanf("%d",&Ndays);
  if(Ndays < 1 || Ndays > 100)
    printf("Error: Invalid number of days."),exit(0);

  printf("Number of club members: ");
  scanf("%d",&Pclimbers);
  if(Pclimbers < 1 || Pclimbers > 20)
    printf("Error: Invalid number of climbers."),
    exit(0);

  for(i=0; i < Pclimbers; i++) {
    hike[i].number = i+1;

    printf("Maximal supply for climber %2d:    ",
     hike[i].number);
    scanf("%d",&hike[i].C);
    if(hike[i].C < 1)
      printf("Error: Supply must be greater 0."),
       exit(0);

    printf("Daily consumption for climber %2d: ",
     hike[i].number);
    scanf("%d",&hike[i].S);
    if(hike[i].S < 1)
      printf("Error: Consumption must greater 0."),
       exit(0);
  }
  printf("This may run for a while.
   If time is running out, hit any key.\n");
  timeabort = 0;
}

int sortorder(const void *A,const void *B)
{
  struct HIKE *a,*b;

  a = (struct HIKE *)A;
  b = (struct HIKE *)B;
  if(a->S == b->S)
    if(b->C == a->C)
      return a->number -b->number;
    else
      return b->C -a->C;
  else
    return a->S -b->S;
}

findunique()
{
  int i;

  qsort(hike,Pclimbers,sizeof(struct HIKE),
   sortorder);
  maxindex=1;
  index[0]=0;
  unused[0]=1;
  for(i=1; i < Pclimbers; i++)
    if(hike[i].S == hike[i-1].S ||
      hike[i].C <= hike[i-1].C)
      unused[maxindex-1]++;
    else {
      index[maxindex] = i;
      unused[maxindex] = 1;
      maxindex++;
    }
}

resetbest()
{
  int i;

  for(i=0; i < Pclimbers; i++) {
    best[i].number = i+1;
    best[i].carries = best[i].descends = 0;
  }
  bestP=Pclimbers+1;
}

planperson(int days,int rate,int provide,int curP,
  int curC)
{
  int i,j,needs,makeup;

  if(curP >= bestP) return;
                          /* trim the search tree */

  for(j=0; j < maxindex; j++)
    if(unused[j] > 0) {
      i = index[j];
      if(hike[i].C-hike[i].S*days >= 0) {
	hike[i].descends = days;
	needs = hike[i].S*days*2+provide;
	makeup = needs-hike[i].C;

	if(makeup > 0) {
	  hike[i].carries = hike[i].C;
	  index[j]++;
	  unused[j]--;
	  planperson(divup(makeup,hike[i].S+rate),
     hike[i].S+rate,makeup, curP+1,curC+hike[i].C);
	  index[j]--;
	  unused[j]++;
	}
	else {
	  hike[i].carries = needs;
	  checkbest(curP+1,curC+needs);
	}
	hike[i].descends = 0;
	hike[i].carries = 0;
      }
    }
}

checkbest(int curP,int curC)
{
  if(curP < bestP || (curP == bestP && curC < bestC))
  {
    bestP = curP;
    bestC = curC;
    memcpy(best,hike,Pclimbers*sizeof(struct HIKE));
  }
  printf(".");
  while(kbhit())
    bestP = 0,getch();
}

int bestorder(const void *A,const void *B)
{
  struct HIKE *a,*b;

  a = (struct HIKE *)A;
  b = (struct HIKE *)B;
  if(a->descends)
    if(b->descends)    return a->number -b->number;
    else               return -1;
  else if(b->descends) return 1;
  else                 return 0;
}

printbest()
{
  int i,first;

  qsort(best,Pclimbers,sizeof(struct HIKE),bestorder)
  ;
  for(bestP=i=0; i < Pclimbers; i++)
    if(best[i].descends)
      bestP++;

  if(bestP == 0) {
    printf("\nClimbing party impossible.\n");
    return;
  }

  printf("\n%d climber%s needed,
    total amount of supplies is %d.\n",
    bestP,bestP > 1 ? "s" : "",bestC);
  printf("Climber%s",bestP > 1 ? "s" : "");
  for(i=0,first=1; i < bestP; i++)
    printf("%s %d",first ? first=0,"" : ",",
      best[i].number);
  printf(" will go.\n");
  for(i=0; i < bestP; i++)
    printf("Climber %d carries %d and descends
      after %d day(s).\n", best[i].number,
      best[i].carries,best[i].descends);
}

5. Final Results and Statistics

5.1 Participation

In this year 51 nations participated, many, like the USA, the first time.

Participation by Continents

from AFRICA:
Algeria, Gabon, South Africa, Tunisia, Zimbabwe;

from AMERICA:
Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Trinidad Tobago, United States;

from ASIA:
China, Hong Kong, Iran, Korea Rep. of, Kuwait, Macao, Mongolia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Viet Nam;

from AUSTRALIA:
Australia;

from EUROPE:

Austria, Belgium, Belorussia, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, Ukraine;

Participation by Nations

The team of each country consists of four participants. Women participation was very low. We had only five girls which came from the Netherlands (2), Italia, Cuba and Portugal. The age of the participants was between 14 and 20.

Legend:
	Boys/	each digit gives the number of
	Girls	boys/girls in that age-class. First
		column is age 19, second is 18, ...
	S	Number of Participants
	D	Number of Delegation leaders
	A	Number of accompanaying persons
	P	Number of supplied problems


Code	Nation		Boys	Girls	S	D	A	P

AFRICA:
ALG	Algeria		0031		4	2	6	6
GAB	Gabon		004		4	2	4
SAF	South Africa	04		4	2	2	2
TUN	Tunisia		022		4	2	2	2
ZIM	Zimbabwe				1	1

AMERICA:
ARG	Argentina	112		4	2	3
COL	Colombia	002		2	1
CUB	Cuba		002	0001	4	2
MEX	Mexico				1	1
TT	Trinidad Tobago	013		4	2	1	4
USA	United States	04		4	2		1

ASIA:
CHI	China		031		4	2	1	2
HKG	Hong Kong	012		3	2	1	2
IRA	Iran		0211		4	2
KOR	Korea Rep. of	0013		4	2	5	2
KUW	Kuwait		0021		3	2	3
MAC	Macao		1021		4	2		1
MON	Mongolia						2
SIN	Singapore	0121		4	1	1
SRI	Sri Lanka	00211		4	2
THA	Thailand	10111		4	2	4	1
VIE	Viet Nam	0013		4	2		1

AUSTRALIA:
AUS	Australia	0012		3	1


EUROPA:
AUT	Austria		031		4	1
B	Belgium		012		3	2	3
BRU	Belorussia	00121		4	2		2
BUL	Bulgaria	01111		4	2
CH	Switzerland	011		2	1		1
CYP	Cyprus		0021		3	2		1
CZ	Czechoslovakia	0112		4	2
D	Germany		301		4	2		1
DK	Denmark				1	3
EST	Estonia		00111		3	2
FI	Finland		121		4	2
GRE	Greece		021		3	2	1
H	Hungary		031		4	2
I	Italy		012	01	4	2	2
LAT	Latvia		031		4	2
LIT	Lithuania	0112		4	2		2
LUX	Luxembourg	011		2	2		1
MAL	Malta		22		4	2	2	1
NL	Netherlands	0011	0011	4	2	1	1
PL	Poland		1201		4	2
POR	Portugal	0011	00001	3	2	2
RO	Romania		01111		4	2		2
RUS	Russia		0004		4	2
SPA	Spain		022		4	2		1
SW	Sweden		301		4	2	1
TUR	Turkey				1
UK	United Kingdom	031		4	2		1
UKR	Ukraine		0031		4	2		2

IF	IFIP				1	1
UN	UNESCO	
______________________________________________

	51 Nations	165	Boys
			5	Girls
			92	Leader
			51	Accomp. persons
			313	Persons total
			42	supplied problems

5.2 Training Reports

as reported by the Teamleaders

               0 = Starting year of national contest
               1 = Number of pupils in 1. round
               2 = Number of pupils in 2. round
               3 = Number of pupils in 3. round
               4 = Number of problems in 1. round
               5 = Number of problems in 2. round
               6 = Number of problems in 3. round
               7 = homework in 1. round
               8 = homework in 2. round
               9 = homework in 3. round
               1 = Number of candidates in Training
               2 = Number of days in Training

IOI'91 National Contests

      Year    Students     Problems   Home  Training
Nation__0______1____2___3___4__5__6___7_8_9___1__2__

ARG    90    240   30       1  1      N N     3 30
BRU    88    600   57   5   3  2  2   N N N   3  5
BUL    82   1500  600  80   3  3  8   N N N  10  7
CHI    84    100            4         N       4 10
CYP    91    100   15       3  1      N N     3  5
CZ     83    255  200  50   4  4  4   Y N N  10  3
D      80   3000  300  30   5  3  2   Y Y N   8  3
GRE    89    300   24       3  1      N N     8  3
H      85   2100   35       8  1      N N    15  5
KOR    84   1000  100      24  6      N N N
MON    90   7000  146  24   2  2  2   N N N   6 14
NIG                                           8 10
NL     91     50            4         Y       4  4
PL     85    120            2         N      20  2
RO     75   1200  600 150   2  2  4   N N N  10 14
RUS    88    100  100       1  1      N N     6 10
SW     89    500   84       6  6      N N
THA    90    100   241      0  8      N N     3 40
UK                                            4  4
VIE    89     30   10       3  3      N N     4 20

IOI'92 National Contests

      Year    Students     Problems   Home  Training
Nation__0______1____2___3___4__5__6___7_8_9___1__2__

ALG
ARG    90    500  200  40   1  1  1   Y Y Y   4 15
AUS    92   2500   48       5  1      N Y     3  3
AUT    92                             Y       0
B      81
BRU    88    600   57   5   3  2  2   N N N   3  5
BUL    82   1500  600  80   3  3  8   N N N   4  6
CH                                            2  6
CHI    84    100   15       4  4      N N     4 14
COL    89    200   80  30  25 15  9   N N N  25 30
CUB
CYP    91     70   12       4  2      N N     4  5
CZ     86    218  130  50   4  4  4   Y N N  11  4
D      80   3000  300  30   5  3  2   Y Y N  12 10
DK
EST    88     62   27       3  3      Y N     8  3
FI     87   6000  600  20   6  5 10   N Y N   8  2
GAB
GRE    89    560   30       3  1      N N     0  0
H      85   3500  100       7  1      N N    17  4
HKG    90     63            1         Y       3  7
I
IRA    92   2000  120   6   2  2  3   N N N   4 20
KOR    84   1000  100      24  6      N N N
KUW
LAT    88   1500  500  68      4  5     N N   4 10
LIT    85   1000  164  25   3  2  2   N N N  20  6
LUX    92     11            1         Y       2  1
MAC           39   14      12  8      N N    14 10
MAL                                           4  3
MEX
MON    91   6000  367  33   2  3  4   N N Y   4 14
NL     91     50            4         Y       4  4
PL     85    120            2         N      20  2
POR    84    180   25          1      Y N     0  0
RO     75   5000 2000 200   4  4  4   N N N     30
RUS    89 135000  150 100   2  2  2   N N N   8 14
SAF    84   3000   15       5  1      N N     4  0
SIN    85    120   78       3  3      N N     6 14
SPA    91     25   12       1  1      Y Y     0  0
SRI
SW     89    500   84       6  6      N N
THA    90    250   30  15   4  6  5   N N N  30 14
TT     92                                     4  1
TUN    91    320   17       4  3      N N     4 10
TUR    93
UK                                            4  4
UKR    88    131  131       2  2      N N     9 17
USA    81   1000   10       5  5      N N     4  2
VIE    89     70   19       3  2      N N     4 21
ZIM                                           0  0

5.3 Medals and Nations

Gold medals have been given to China (3x), Korea, Sweden (2x), Thailand (2x), Czechoslovakia, Hungary, USA (2x) and Viet Nam. In total 13 Gold, 31 Silver and 41 Bronze medals have been distributed.

	Nation		      Gold    Silver    Bronze

	China			3	1	0
	Thailand		2	1	1
	Sweden			2	1	1
	USA			2	0	0
	Korea			1	2	1
	Czechoslovakia		1	2	0
	Viet Nam		1	1	2
	Hungary			1	1	1

	Iran			0	2	2
	Argentina		0	2	1
	Bulgaria		0	2	1
	South Africa		0	2	0
	Germany			0	1	3
	Russia			0	1	3
	Ukraine			0	1	3
	Poland			0	1	2
	United Kingdom		0	1	2
	Australia		0	1	2
	Macau			0	1	1
	Belorussia		0	1	1
	Latvia			0	1	1
	Belgium			0	1	1
	Romania			0	1	1
	Finland			0	1	1
	Netherlands		0	1	0
	Hong Kong		0	1	0

	Lithuania		0	0	3
	Cuba			0	0	2
	Singapore		0	0	1
	Austria			0	0	1
	Switzerland		0	0	1
	Greece			0	0	1
	Estonia			0	0	1

5.4 The Twelve Most Successful Teams

Nation (Points)	Surname		1st name	Prize

China (785)
		Sun		Yanfeng		2
		Chen		Gao		1
		Wu		Xing		1
		Yang		Yunhe		1

Thailand (743)
		Yamwong		Wittawat	3
		Thaisedhawatkul	Suttirak	2
		Asavanuchit	Pinit		1
		Fagcharoenphon	Jittat		1

Sweden (731)
		Nilsson		Jesper		3
		Comstedt	Marcus		2
		Een		Niklas		1
		Huss		Fredrik		1

Korea (728)
		Park		JinSuk		3
		Lee		JongHyun	2
		Kim		KangHoe		2
		Kim		BomJun		1

Viet Nam (721)
		HaCong		Thanh		3
		LeVan		Tri		3
		Tuan		PhamMinh	2
		NguyenTuan	Viet		1

Hungary (684)
		Szatmary	Zoltan		4
		Szasz		Oliver		3
		Kiss		Robert		2
		Peter		Laszlo		1

Germany (671)
		Hein		Wilko		3
		Löhrig		Fjodor		3
		Mischke		Thomas		3
		John		Matthias	2

Russia (653)
		Davydak		Dmitry		3
		Kuznetsov	Evgeney		3
		Ioffe		Sergey		3
		Zoukov		Dmitry		2

Czechoslovakia (645)
		Vinar		Tomas		4
		Kotas		Jan		2
		Kybic		Jan		2
		Ondrusek	Matej		1

Argentina (643)
		Agnese		Andres		4
		Futoransky	Ariel		3
		Kofman		Ernesto		2
		Moreno		GabrielAle	2

Ukraine (622)
		Bondarenko	Vitaly		3
		Filippenko	Denis		3
		Matlach		Pavel		3
		Skvortsov	Alexei		2

United States (620)
		Hunt		Russel		4
		Prior		Michael		4
		Bronson		Nathan		1
		Smith		Shawn		1

5.5 The Winners

Nr	Points	Surname		1st name	Nation

1st PRIZE

 1	200	Asavanuchit	Pinit		THA
 2	200	Bronson		Nathan		USA
 3	200	Chen		Gao		CHI
 4	200	Fagcharoenphon	Jittat		THA
 5	200	Huss		Fredrik		SW
 6	200	Kim		BomJun		KOR
 7	200	NguyenTuan	Viet		VIE
 8	200	Ondrusek	Matej		CZ
 9	200	Peter		Laszlo		H
10	200	Smith		Shawn		USA
11	200	Wu		Xing		CHI
12	200	Yang		Yunhe		CHI
13	198	Een		Niklas		SW


2nd PRIZE

 1	195	DeVusser	Frederik	B
 2	195	Kim		KangHoe		KOR
 3	195	Kiss		Robert		H
 4	195	Lam		WaiIp		MAC
 5	195	Piskiulev	Dimitar		BUL
 6	195	TerHuurne	Maarten		NL
 7	193	Moreno		GabrielAle	ARG
 8	193	Sullivan	John		UK
 9	193	Thaisedhawatkul	Suttirak	THA
10	190	Dobrev		Gabriel		BUL
11	190	Kybic		Jan		CZ
12	190	Lee		JongHyun	KOR
13	190	Rajantie	Arttu		FI
14	190	Tuan		PhamMinh	VIE
15	188	Comstedt	Marcus		SW
16	187	Zoukov		Dmitry		RUS
17	185	Belyi		Vladimir	BRU
18	185	Butler		David		SAF
19	185	John		Matthias	D
20	185	Karnitis	Girts		LAT
21	185	Kofman		Ernesto		ARG
22	185	Kotas		Jan		CZ
23	185	Skvortsov	Alexei		UKR
24	185	Sun		Yanfeng		CHI
25	180	Henriksen	SorenJohn	AUS
26	175	Chan		HingLun		HKG
27	175	Guthrie		KeithAllen	SAF
28	175	Mahdian		Mohammad	IRA
29	175	MirzaeiBouini	Saeed		IRA
30	175	Necula		Valentin	RO
31	175	Smigielski	Tomasz		PL


3rd PRIZE

 1	172	Szasz		Oliver		H
 2	171	Mischke		Thomas		D
 3	170	Ioffe		Sergey		RUS
 4	170	Leok		Melvin		SIN
 5	170	Meinorius	Giedrius	LIT
 6	170	Praun		EmilConsta	RO
 7	168	LeVan		Tri		VIE
 8	168	Meisl		Christian	AUT
 9	165	Kuznetsov	Evgeney		RUS
10	165	Löhrig		Fjodor		D
11	165	Pliszka		Jacek		PL
12	163	HaCong		Thanh		VIE
13	160	Ambraziunas	Valdas		LIT
14	158	Hamilton	Ivan		AUS
15	158	Matlach		Pavel		UKR
16	156	Forster		Richard		UK
17	155	Bojinov		Hristo		BUL
18	155	Filippenko	Denis		UKR
19	154	RivasDiaz	Ramon		CUB
20	150	Gafourov	Sergej		BRU
21	150	Hein		Wilko		D
22	150	Lam		ChiKun		MAC
23	150	Yamwong		Wittawat	THA
24	148	Borrego		Mayelin		CUB
25	145	Futoransky	Ariel		ARG
26	145	Nilsson		Jesper		SW
27	143	Park		JinSuk		KOR
28	140	Alaburda	Marius		LIT
29	140	Bogacz		Rafal		PL
30	140	Buergi		Michael		CH
31	139	Galvans		Andris		LAT
32	135	RostamAbadi	Farshad		IRA
33	131	Davydak		Dmitry		RUS
34	130	Kavarnos	Adonis		GRE
35	130	Pulkkinen	Esa		FI
36	128	Brannan		Barry		AUS
37	125	Laud		Peeter		EST
38	125	Rix		Antony		UK
39	125	VanAssche	Gilles		B
40	124	Bondarenko	Vitaly		UKR
41	123	KavehMaryan	Quamars		IRA


Other Participants

 1		Agnese		Andres		ARG
 2		Blaszczyk	Tomasz		PL
 3		Gambardella	Alessandro	I
 4		Szatmary	Zoltan		H
 5		Fung		PingFu		HKG
 6		Kuzmin		Maxim		BRU
 7		Prior		Michael		USA
 8		VanderVorrden	Danny		NL
 9		Lupsa		RaduLucian	RO
10		DeGroot		Hermana		NL
11		Kyrou		George		CYP
12		Wong		IoKuan		MAC
13		Hunt		Russel		USA
14		Kudzma		Daumantas	LIT
15		LopezPedraza	Oscar		CUB
16		Mett		Aldo		EST
17		Vachkevitch	Mikhail		BRU
18		Bouguerra	Youssef		TUN
19		Dekkers		Sophia		NL
20		Ghenea		Bogdan		RO
21		Kornelis	Wouter		LUX
22		Niemi		Jyrki		FI
23		Alcides		Morales		CUB
24		AlMutawa	Abdullah	KUW
25		Koivisto	Juha		FI
26		Coetzer		MartinJ		SAF
27		Guermach	Samir		TUN
28		Yee		YangLi		SIN
29		Palavrov	Atanas		BUL
30		Sirinathsingh	Mansoor		TT
31		Skordis		Constantin	CYP
32		VandenBerghen	Frank		B
33		Zavahir		AhamedSifa	SRI
34		Jayawardena	Sidath		SRI
35		Jarraya		Bechir		TUN
36		PerezBreva	Luis		SPA
37		Russo		Diego		I
38		Lazdinch	Armands		LAT
39		Muscat		Albert		MAL
40		Vinar		Tomas		CZ
41		Yip		WingKong	HKG
42		Clarke		Peter		UK
43		MercaderBarata	Jorge		SPA
44		Papadimitriou	Spyros		GRE
45		Pol		Andras		SPA
46		BenFraj		Zamen		TUN
47		Fong		KaiNam		MAC
48		Wolff		Pascal		LUX
49		Awart		Patrik		AUT
50		Vella		Stephen		MAL
51		LeeSeyon	Geoff		TT
52		Jayaweera	Gayan		SRI
53		Lim		YuenChen	SIN
54		Ricci		Fabrizio	I
55		Gafa		Paul		MAL
56		Mierinch	Erik		LAT
57		Tan		KongHwee	SIN
58		Vella		Vincent		MAL
59		Chrisos		Thanasis	GRE
60		DelOude		Walter		SAF
61		MatosPinto	Jose		POR
62		Muqaddas	Ammar		KUW
63		PauloOAlmeida	Joao		POR
64		Praschl		Michael		AUT
65		SanchezMarquiegui	Javier	SPA
66		Jayasinghe	Aroshan		SRI
67		Lalla		Brian		TT
68		Ramadhan	AbdulAmeer	KUW
69		HoyosDimoftache	Carlos		COL
70		Jaanits		Mart		EST
71		RestrepoLaverde	Jose		COL
72		Boussahel	Bachir		ALG
73		Schultschik	Anton		CH
74		Enzinger	Fabian		AUT
75		Panayiotou	Michael		CYP
76		Khiat		Abdelaziz	ALG
77		QzuinzelaMPocas	Andreia		POR
78		Seurattan	Mark		TT
79		Preziuso	Daniela		I
80		Cherifi		Bachir		ALG
81		Hadid		Abdenour	ALG
82		Qasem		Abdulaziz	KUW
83		BengoneMinko	Polycarpe	GAB
84		DoungouBrice	Thierry		GAB
85		Iningoue	DavyXavier	GAB
86		Mintoo		Steeve		GAB

6. Program of the IOI'92

Sunday 12-7-92 (Day of Arrival)

08:00-22:00	Reception at the airport

12:00-24:00	Registration at the hotel

13:00-14:00	Lunch at the hotel

14:00-18:00	Introduction to
		computer equipment	Room: S5-6

10:00-22:00	Open air entertainment
		at Rheinaue Park (public)

18:00-19:00	Dinner at the hotel

19:00-20:00	Common Prayer at church nearby
		or walk in the Rheinaue

20:00-22:00	Open air festival
		at Rheinaue (public)

Monday 13-7-92 (Opening Ceremony at GMD)

07:30-08:30	Breakfast

08:30-08:45	Bus transfer to Bonn city

09:00-10:00	Reception by the Mayor
		at the city hall "Altes Rathaus"

10:00-10:30	Bus transfer to GMD

10:00-11:00	Press conference (by special invitation)

11:00-12:30	Opening ceremony
		at Schloß Birlinghoven (GMD)

12:30-14:00	Lunch on the Schloß terrace

14:00-18:00	Visit to the German National
		Research Center for
		Computer Science (GMD)

18:00-19:00	Dinner at GMD restaurant

19:00-21:30	Opening party
		on the Schloß terrace
		with dance and Dixieland music

21:30-22:00	Bus transfer to the hotel

Tuesday 14-7-92 (Excursion to Düsseldorf)

07:00-08:00	Breakfast

08:00-09:20	Bus transfer to Düsseldorf

09:20-12:00	Sightseeing tour

12:00-12:15	Reception by the Minister

12:15-13:30	Lunch at parliament restaurant

13:30-15:30	Visit to the seat of parliament
		of North Rhine-Westphalia,
		city walk or visit to museums

15:30-17:00	Bus transfer to the hotel

18:00-19:00	Dinner at the hotel

19:00-21:00	Jury meeting	Room: S17
		Volleyball / sports

Wednesday 15-7-92 (First Day of Competition)

06:00-11:00	Jury meeting	Room: S17

08:00-09:00	Breakfast

10:00-15:00	1st round of the competition
		Rooms: S1-2, S5-11

11:00-12:00	Meeting of the International
		Olympic Committee	S17

13:00-14:00	Lunch for committees

14:00-15:00	Instruction of Coordinators
		by Scientific Committee	S17

15:00-16:00	Lunch for students

15:00-19:00	Evaluation by Coordinators
		and Jury Members

18:00-19:30	Sports
		Meeting point: lobby

19:00-20:00	Television and
		press conference	Room: S5

20:00-21:00	Dinner at the hotel

21:00-23:00	Coordinators meeting	S14-16



Thursday 16-7-92 (Excursion to Heidelberg)

06:00-7:00	Breakfast

07:00-10:00	Bus transfer to Heidelberg

10:30-13:00	Guided tour:
		Heidelberg castle,
		Romantic city and
		Old university

13:00-14:00	Lunch during the boat trip
		to Neckarstein

14:00-15:00	Visit to the publishing house
		"Springer-Verlag",
		presentation of
		Hypermedia techniques

15:00-16:30	Snacks and discussions

16:30-20:00	Bus transfer to the hotel

20:00-21:00	Dinner at the hotel

Friday 17-7-92 (Second Day of Competition)

06:00-11:00	Jury meeting	Room: S17

08:00-09:00	Breakfast

10:00-15:00	2nd round of the competition
		same rooms

11:00-12:00	Meeting of the International
		Olympic Committee	S17

13:00-14:00	Lunch for committees

14:00-15:00	Instruction of coordinators
		by Scientific Committee	S17

15:00-16:00	Lunch for students

15:00-19:30	Evaluation by coordinators
		and Jury Members

18:00-19:30	Sports
		Meeting point: lobby

19:30-20:30	Dinner at the hotel

20:30-24:00	Coordinators meeting	S14-16

Saturday 18-7-92 (Excursion to Cologne)

08:00-09:00	Breakfast

09:00-09:30	Bus transfer to Cologne

09:30-11:30	Guided tour of cathedral;
		museum and city

11:30-12:00	Bus transfer to Bocklemünd

12:00-12:30	Lunch
		(Lunch bags)

12:30-17:30	Visit to WDR television studios
		Germany's biggest TV-station

17:30-18:00	Bus transfer to the hotel

18:30-20:00	Sports
		Meeting point: lobby

18:30-20:00	Jury meeting	S17

20:00-21:00	Dinner at the hotel

21:00-22:00	Jury meeting	S17

Sunday 19-7-92 (Recreation Day)

08:00-09:00	Breakfast

09:00-12:30	Religious and cultural program

	a)	Go to church,
		see special information sheet

	b)	Visit Beethoven's house
		Guided tours in English (50 people),
		German (25), Russian (25),
		Spanish (25) and Chinese (25).

	c)	Visit Bonn's Museum Mile
		Guided tours in English (100)
		and French (25)

11:30-12:30	Jury meeting

12:30-13:30	Lunch at the hotel

13:30	 	Bus transfer to Rhöndorf
		and Margarethenhöhe. Your options:

	a)	Guided Visit to Adenauer's House
		in Rhöndorf and guided Short
		Climbing the Dragon's rock to
		Königswinter via Drachenfels (150)

	b)	Guided walk in the Seven Mountains
		Margarethenhöhe to Königswinter
		via Drachenfels (for people who like
		walking for two hours in forest).

17:50-18:30	Boat transfer with passenger ship
		"Köln-Düsseldorfer-Line"
		from Königswinter to Bonn
		(200 people, others take buses)

18:30-22:00	Summertime in the city

	a)	walk back to the hotel for dinner
	b)	have nice summertime in the city


20:00-21:00	Dinner at the hotel

Monday 20-7-92 (Prize-Giving Ceremony)

08:00-09:00	Breakfast

10:00-10:30	Bus transfer to GMD

10:00-10:30	Press conference

11:00-13:00	Closing ceremony
		at Schloß Birlinghoven (GMD)
		Speakers:
		Prof. Denis Tsichritzis
		Minister Prof. Rainer Ortleb
		Ministerin Steffie Schnoor
		Minister Hans Schwier
		Prof. Fritz Krückeberg
		Prof. Peter Widmayer
		Dr. Alicia Banuelos

		Presentation of awards

13:00-14:00	Buffet lunch
		on the Schloß terrace

14:00-14:30	Bus transfer to the hotel

16:00-18:00	Sports	Meeting point: lobby

18:30-23:00	Olympic Dinner and
		Farewell party
		at the hotel

Tuesday 21-7-92 (Day of Departure)

07:00-09:00	Breakfast

12:00-13:00	Lunch at the hotel

 6:00-22:00	Farewell at the airport

7. Participants

7.1 Participating Countries

ALG  	Algeria        	Rachid Chaoui
ARG  	Argentina      	Alicia Banuelos
AUS  	Australia      	Ian Penney
AUT  	Austria        	Eduard Szirucsek
B    	Belgium        	Yvan Rooseleer
BRU  	Belorussia     	Vladimir Kotov
BUL  	Bulgaria       	Pavel Azalov
CH   	Switzerland    	Peter Strebel
CHI  	China          	Wenhu Wu
COL  	Colombia       	MarioVicen CruzSoriano
CUB  	Cuba           	Alfredo Oquando
CYP  	Cyprus         	Michael Hadjicharalambo
CZ   	Czechoslovakia 	Vaclav Sedlacek
D    	Germany        	Michael Fothe
DK   	Denmark        	Anne Lyngdorf *
EST  	Estonia        	Rein Frank
FI   	Finland        	Otto Nurmi
GAB  	Gabon          	Gabriel Massala
GRE  	Greece         	Spyros Bakogiannis
H    	Hungary        	Peter Hanak
HKG  	Hong Kong      	Shiu-bong Teng
I    	Italy          	Margherita Iollo
IRA  	Iran           	Yahya Tabesh
KOR  	Korea Rep. of  	HaJine Kimn
KUW  	Kuwait         	Makki NasserAlKhabbaz
LAT  	Latvia         	Maris Vitins
LIT  	Lithuania      	Gintautas Grigas
LUX  	Luxembourg     	Charles Leytem
MAC  	Macao          	Teng Lam
MAL  	Malta          	Joseph Galea
MEX  	Mexico         	Olga HernandezChavez *
MON  	Mongolia       	Choijoovan Lkhachin
NL   	Netherlands    	Ries Kock
PL   	Poland         	Stanislaw Waligorski
POR  	Portugal       	Antonio Concalves
RO   	Romania        	Stelian Niculescu
RUS  	Russia         	Vladimir Kiryukhin
SAF  	South Africa   	Pieter Walker
SIN  	Singapore      	TuckChoy Tan
SPA  	Spain          	Angeles PratValverde
SRI  	Sri Lanka       	Lalkumar Chandranath
SW   	Sweden         	Hakan Stromberg
THA  	Thailand       	Kanchit Malaivongs
TT   	Trinidad Tobago	Claude Lutchman
TUN  	Tunisia        	Naoufel Ghazouani
TUR  	Turkey         	Göktürk Ücoluk *
UK   	Unitedkingdom  	Steven Bird
UKR  	Ukraine        	Valery Bykov
USA  	United States  	Donald Piele
VIE  	Viet Nam       	HoSi Dam
ZIM  	Zimbabwe       	Shaun Mumford * 
     	               	(Team leader or Observer *)

7.2 Represented Institutions

International Representatives

IFIP	Fed.Inf.Proc.	Tom van Weerth
UN	Unesco		Edward Jacobsen

Host Country's Representatives

Prof. Fritz Krückeberg, National Committee Chairman
Prof. Peter Widmayer, President of the Jury
Dr. Hans-Werner Hein, Chief Coordinator
Dr. Peter Heyderhoff, Managing Director of IOI'92
Günther Miklitz, Chief Organizer

7.3 Participating People

Students
Legend:		Nat	= Nationality
		N	= Number
		L	= spoken Language
		L2	= second Language
		L3	= third Language
		LP	= Programming Language
		A	= Arabic
		E	= English
		F	= French
		G	= German
		R	= Russian
		S	= Spanish

Nat N  Surname            1st name   L L2 L3 LP
-----  -----------------  ---------- - -- -- --
ALG-1  Boussahel          Bachir     E A     ?
ALG-2  Cherif             Bachir     E A     ?
ALG-3  Hadid              Abdenour   E A     ?
ALG-4  Ghiat              Abdelaziz  E A     ?

ARG-1  Futuransky         Ariel      S E     P6
ARG-2  Agnese             Andres     S E     P6
ARG-3  Kofman             Ernesto    S F     P5
ARG-4  Moreno             GabrielAle S E     C+

AUS-1  Henriksen          SorenJohn  E       C+
AUS-2  Brannan            Barry      E       P6
AUS-3  Hamilton           Ivan       E       BQ

AUT-1  Metsl              Christian  G E     BQ
AUT-2  Praschl            Michael    G E     P6
AUT-3  Awart              Patrik     G E  F  P6
AUT-4  Enzinger           Fabian     G E     P6

B---1  DeVusser           Frederik   NLE     C+
B---2  VandenBerghen      Frank      F       P6
B---3  VanAssche          Gilles     F NL E  P6

BRU-1  Kunmin             Maxim      R       ?
BRU-2  Boly               Vladimir   R       ?
BRU-3  Gafurov            Sergej     R       ?
BRU-4  Vashkevich         Michail    R       ?

BUL-1  Bojinov            Hristo     E       P5
BUL-2  Dobrev             Gabriel    E R     P5
BUL-3  Piskiulev          Dimitar    E       P5
BUL-4  Palavrov           Atanas     B R     P5

CH--1  Schultschik        Anton      G E  F  P5
CH--2  Buergi             Michael    G F  E  P5

CHI-1  Chen               Gao        C E     P6
CHI-2  Yang               Yunhe      C E     P6
CHI-3  Wu                 Xing       C E     P6
CHI-4  Sun                Yarfeng    C E     P6

COL-1  HoyosDimoftache    Carlos     S G  E  C+
COL-2  RestrepoLaverde    Jose       S       C+

CUB-1  Alcides            Morales    S
CUB-2  LopezPedraza       Oscar      S
CUB-3  RivasDiaz          Ramon      S
CUB-4  Borrego            Mayelin    S

CYP-1  Skordis            Constantin E       ?
CYP-2 Panayiotou          Michael    E       CQ
CYP-3  Kyrou              George     E       P6

CZ--1  Ondrusek           Matej      E G     ?
CZ--2  Kotas              Jan        CZE     P6
CZ--3  Vinar              Tomas      E       P6
CZ--4  Kybic              Jan        E       P6

D---1  Hein               Wilko      G E  F  P6
D---2  John               Matthias   G E  R  P6
D---3  Loehrig            Fjodor     G E  F  P6
D---4  Mischke            Thomas     G E  R  P6

EST-1  Laud               Peeter     E G  R  P5
EST-2  Mett               Aldo       E FI    P6
EST-3  Akerman            Olavi      E FI R  C+
EST-4  Jaanits            Mart               C+

FI--1  Niemi              Jyrki      FISW E  P6
FI--2  Koivisto           Juha       FIE  G  C+
FI--3  Pulkkinen          Esa        FIE     C+
FI--4  Rajantie           Arttu      FIE  G  P6

GAB-1  BengoneMinko       Polycarpe  E F     ?
GAB-2  DoungouBrice       Thierry    E F     ?
GAB-3  Iningoue           DavyXavier         ?
GAB-4  Mintoo             Steeve             ?

GRE-1  Papadimitriou      Spyros     E G     P6
GRE-2  Chrisos            Thanasis   E G     BQ
GRE-3  Kavarnos           Adonis     E F  G  P6

H---1  Kiss               Robert     H G     P6
H---2  Peter              Laszlo     H E     P6
H---3  Szasz              Oliver     H E     P6
H---4  Szatmary           Zoltan     H G     P6

HKG-1  Yip                WingKong   C E     BQ
HKG-2  Chan               HingLun    C E     BQ
HKG-3  Fung               PingFu     C E     P5

I---1  Gambardella        Alessandro E I     P5
I---2  Ricci              Fabrizio   E I     P6
I---3  Russo              Diego      E I     P5
I---4  Preziuso           Daniela    E I     P5

IRA-1  KavehMaryan        Quamars    A E     P6
IRA-2  MirzaeiBouini      Saeed      A E     P6
IRA-3  RostamAbadi        Farshad    A E     P6
IRA-4  Mahdian            Mohammad   A E     P6

KOR-1  Park               JinSuk     K       P6
KOR-2  Kim                BomJun     K       P6
KOR-3  Lee                JongHyun   K       P6
KOR-4  Kim                KangHoe    K       BQ

KUW-1  Abdel Amir Hassan  Mohammed   A
KUW-2  Adnan Mohammed     Imad       A
KUW-3  Saduon Al Auwaisch Waleed     A
KUW-4  Aziz Ali Abdallah  Abdel      A

LAT-1  Galvans            Andris     L R  E  P6
LAT-2  Karnitis           Girts      L R  E  P6
LAT-3  Lazdins            Armands    L R  E  P6
LAT-4  Mierins            Eriks      L R  G  BQ

LIT-1  Alaburda           Marius     R E     ?
LIT-2  Ambraziunas        Valdas     R E     ?
LIT-3  Kudzma             Daumantas  R E     ?
LIT-4  Meinorius          Giedrius   R E     ?

LUX-1  Kornelis           Wouter     F E  G  C+
LUX-2  Wolff              Pascal     E F  G  P6

MAC-1  Lam                ChiKun     C       P6
MAC-2  Wong               IoKuan     C       BG
MAC-3  Fong               KaiNam     C E     P5
MAC-4  Lam                WaiIp      C       P6

MAL-1  Gafa               Paul       E I     CM
MAL-2  Muscat             Albert     E       BG
MAL-3  Vella              Stephen    E       P6
MAL-4  Vella              Vincent    E       P6

MON-1  Dugersuren         Ulambayar  M R     ?
MON-2  Ariunbold          Gantulga   M R  E  ?
MON-3  Lasran             Bayanjarga M R  E  BG
MON-4  Goosh              Injinash   M R     BG

NL--1  Dekkers            Sophia     E F  G  P5
NL--2  Ter Huurne         Maarten    E G  F  L
NL--3  De Groot           Harmke     NLE  G  L
NL--4  Van der Voorden    Danny      E G  F  L

PL--1  Blaszczyk          Tomasz     E PL R  P6
PL--2  Pliszka            Jacek      E PL R  P6
PL--3  Bogacz             Rafal      E PL R  P6
PL--4  Smigielski         Tomasz     E PL R  P6

POR-1  QzuinzelaMPocas    Andreia    E F     P5
POR-2  MatosPinto         Jose       E F     P5
POR-3  PauloOAlmeida      Joao       F E     P5

RO--1  Praun              EmilConsta E F     P6
RO--2  Ghenea             Bogdan     E       P6
RO--3  Necula             Valentin   E F     P6
RO--4  Lupsa              RaduLucian F E     P6

RUS-1  Ioffe              Sergey     R       P5
RUS-2  Kuznetsov          Evgeney    R       P6
RUS-3  Zhukov             Dmitry     R       P6
RUS-4  Davydak            Dmitry     R       P6

SAF-1  Butler             David      E       P5
SAF-2  Coetzer            MartinJ    E       P5
SAF-3  DeOude             Walter     E       P6
SAF-4  Guthrie            KeithAllen E       P6

SIN-1  Leok               Melvin     E M     P6
SIN-2  Tan                KongHwee   E M     ?
SIN-3  Yee                YangLiHect E M     P6
SIN-4  Lim                YuenChenJo E M     P6

SPA-1  MercaderBarats     Jorge      E S     P5
SPA-2  AndrasPuchol       Pol        E S     P5
SPA-3  PerezBreva         Luis       E S     P5
SPA-4  SanchezMarquiegui  Javier     E S     P5

SRI-1  Zavahir            AhamedSifa S E     BQ
SRI-2  Jayaweera          GAHGayan   S E     BG
SRI-3  Jayasinghe         AroshanKau S E     BG
SRI-4  Jayawardena        SidathMaha S E     BQ

SW--1  Huss               Fredrik            ?
SW--2  Comstedt           Marcus             ?
SW--3  Een                Niklas             ?
SW--4  Nilsson            Jesper             ?

THA-1  Fagcharoenphon     Jittat     E       P5
THA-2  Asavanuchit        Pinit      E       P5
THA-3  Yamwong            Wittawat   E       P5
THA-4  Thaisedhawatkul    Suttirak   E       P5

TT--1  Lalla              BrianJulia E       P6
TT--2  Sirinathsingh      Mansoor    E S     BG
TT--3  Seurattan          Mark       E       CQ
TT--4  LeeSeyon           Geoff      E       P6

TUN-1  BenFradj           Zamen      A E  F  P5
TUN-2  Bouguerra          Youssef    A F  E  P5
TUN-3  Guermech           Samir      A E  F  P5
TUN-4  Jarraya            Bechir     A E     P6

UK--1  Rix                Antony     E F     P6
UK--2  Suluvan            John       E       C+
UK--3  Forster            Richard    E       P6
UK--4  Clarke             Peter      E F  G  P6

UKR-1  Filippenko         Denis      R       P5
UKR-2  Bondarenko         Vitaly     R       P6
UKR-3  Matlash            Pavel      R       P5
UKR-4  Skvortsov          Alexei     R       P5

USA-1  Bronson            Nathan     E       C+
USA-2  Hunt               Russel     E G     C+
USA-3  Prior              Michael    E G     C+
USA-4  Smith              Shawn      E S     C+

VIE-1  Tri                LeVan      V E     P5
VIE-2  Viet               NguyenTuan V F  E  P5
VIE-3  Thanh              HaCong     E       P5
VIE-4  Tuan               PhamMinh   V E  F  P6

Students Adresses

ALG  Boussahel         Bachir

ALG  Cherifi           Bachir

ALG  Hadid             Abdenour

ALG  Khiat             Abdelaziz

ARG  Futoransky        Ariel       0054-1-55221923
     Heredia 507               BuenosAires     1457
ARG  Agnese            Andres      0054-1-7515993
     De los Pensamientos 2870  CiudadJardinBA  1684
ARG  Kofman            Ernesto     0054-052-51575
     Lavalle 3823              SantaFe         3000
ARG  Moreno            GabrielAle  0054-061-310854
     Pellegrini 319            SanJoseGuaymMen 5519
AUS  Henriksen         SorenJohn   006149-453811
     Pacific Hwy 398           BelmontNSW      2280
AUS  Brannan           Barry       006193-432257
     Penquite Road 143         LauncestonTasma R50
AUS  Hamilton          Ivan        006145-731
     Gadds Lane                NorthRichmondNS 2745
AUT  Meisl             Christian   06245-7413
     Weißhofweg 4              Hallein         A-5400
AUT  Praschl           Michael     03862-26820
     Schnitzhof 14-2           Kapfenberg      A-8605
AUT  Awart             Patrik      0222-3300659
     Marchfeldstr. 16-18       Wien            A-1220
AUT  Enzinger          Fabian      0662-360203
     General Arnold Str.4-18   Salzburg Lehen  A-5020
B    DeVusser          Frederik    0032-91772665
     Mezenlaan                 Adegem          9991
B    VandenBerghen     Frank       0032-68284061
     Chemin des Deux Villers11 ATHVillersNDame
B    VanAssche         Gilles      0032-2-354-3304
     Rue Mattot                Waterloo        1410
BRU  Kuzmin            Maxim

BRU  Belyi             Vladimir

BRU  Gafourov          Sergej

BRU  Vachkevitch       Mikhail

BUL  Bojinov           Hristo      00359-52-883985
     Naiden Gerov Str.47,B,Fl5 Varna           9002
BUL  Dobrev            Gabriel     00857-5687
     Georgi Benkovski St. 8    Tutrakan        7600
BUL  Piskiulev         Dimitar     00359-554-4115
     Septemvri9, 12            Nesebar         8230
BUL  Palavrov          Atanas      0035-32-432948
     Proslava Str. 33,KV Prosl Plovdiv         4000
CH   Schultschik       Anton       0041-1-940-4012
     Tägerackerstr. 33         Uster           8610
CH   Buergi            Michael     0041-1-9405975
     Bordackerstr.35           Uster           8610
CHI  Chen              Gao         008627-875182
     Vrit 5, 54 Ziyang Rd.WuDi Wuhan           430064
CHI  Yang              Yunhe       008621-5486206
     Changhai 3rd Vill.30-14YD Shanghai        200093
CHI  Wu                Xing        0086591-441832
     Yuantingli new vill.,404  Fuzhou          350007
CHI  Sun               Yanfeng     00861-3811848
     Yungang-Dongli,FengtaiDis Beijing         100074
COL  HoyosDimoftache   Carlos      +571-2717734
     Calle 136#59-65 Ap504     SantafeDeBogota
COL  RestrepoLaverde   Jose

CUB  Alcides           Morales
     Camajvani                 Villa Clara
CUB  LopezPedraza      Oscar
     Bererjeer 20a             Santa Clara
CUB  RivasDiaz         Ramon
     Edipicio 25 Apt 15        Habana
CUB  Borrego           Mayelin
     S26deNoviembe 76          Pinan del Rio
CYP  Skordis           Constantin  00357-2-446814
     G. Papaverkiou, 1         Nicosia         171
CYP  Panayiotou        Michael     0057-2-333164
     Galinis, 1                Nicosia
CYP  Kyrou             George      00357-2-430426
     Vasiliou Voulgaroctonou   PolosNicosia    8
CZ   Ondrusek          Matej       004207-372807
     Jelsova 3                 Bratislava      831 01
CZ   Kotas             Jan         0042-019-522905
     Krasnohorske 15           Plzen           323 11
CZ   Vinar             Tomas       0042-095-424876
     Hronska 13                Kosice          040 11
CZ   Kybic             Jan         0042-095-424876
     Hronska 13                Kosice          04011
D    Hein              Wilko       05130-4614
     Am Wedemarkbad 21c        Wedemark        3002
D    John              Matthias
     Rückertstr. 6             Nordhausen      5500
D    Löhrig            Fjodor      05237-1317
     Kaustenbecker Str. 3      Augustdorf      4936
D    Mischke           Thomas      06074-5293
     Bachgasse 21              Rödermark       6074
EST  Laud              Peeter      007-0142-524983
     Sopruse Str. 211-15       Tallinn         EE0038
EST  Mett              Aldo
     Kooli, 7-37               Kohila          EE3420
EST  Jaanits           Mart        07-0142-320709
     Velikie Luki Str. 2-8     Tallinn         EE0010
FI   Niemi             Jyrki       00358-51-387334
     Valkealan kr. opisto      Hasula          47830
FI   Koivisto          Juha        00358-0-447604
     Et. Hesperiankatu 36 A 4  Helsinki        00100
FI   Pulkkinen         Esa         00358-18-7805774
     Valkontie 3               Hollola         15200
FI   Rajantie          Arttu       00358-0-599669
     Karakalliontie 2 A 13     Espoo           02620
GAB  BengoneMinko      Polycarpe

GAB  DoungouBrice      Thierry

GAB  Iningoue          DavyXavier

GAB  Mintoo            Steeve

GRE  Papadimitriou     Spyros      0030-1-6011883
     Koumoundourou,AG Paraskev Athens          15341
GRE  Chrisos           Thanasis    0030-842-22992
     Fokeas Str. 5             IerapetraCrete
GRE  Kavarnos          Adonis      0030-421-22519
     Oikonomaki Str. 1         Volos           38 333
H    Kiss              Robert      00369617-748
     Tihanyi Arpad UT          Györ            9023
H    Peter             Laszlo      0036-80-65-164

H    Szasz             Oliver      0036-1-131-2464
     Szent Istvan Krt., 20     BudapestXIII    1137
H    Szatmary          Zoltan      0036-1-129-4590
     Uisegradi U. 43-45        BudapestXIII    1132
HKG  Yip               WingKong    00852-3-437159
     FlatC 9Fl, 21 Shung Yan S KwunTongKowloon
HKG  Chan              HingLun     00852-5-783082
     Flat 22C, 11 Fort Street  NorthPoint
HKG  Fung              PingFu      00852-3-935482
     Flat E 14Fl, 28 Cherry St KowloonHongKong
I    Gambardella       Alessandro  0039-81-7670542
     Via Paolo della Valle 5   Napoli          80126
I    Ricci             Fabrizio    0039-81-7264099
     Via Domenico Padula 112   Napoli          80126
I    Russo             Diego       0039-81-5852812
     Via Pietro Castellino 56  Napoli          80128
I    Preziuso          Daniela     0039-81-646697
     Trav 1 Divisione Siena 21 Napoli          80124
IRA  KavehMaryan       Quamars     98-21-4005117
     P.O. Box 11365            Tehran          9415
IRA  MirzaeiBouini     Saeed       98-21-4005117
     P.O. Box 11365            Tehran          9415
IRA  RostamAbadi       Farshad     98-21-4005117
     P.O. Box 11365-9415       Tehran          9415
IRA  Mahdian           Mohammad    98-21-4005117
     P.O. Box 11365            Tehran          9415
KOR  Park              JinSuk      0082-331-33-8862
     San 28-1, songjuk-dong,Ch SuwonKyonggiDo 440-210
KOR  Kim               BomJun      0082-2-588-2406
     Seocho-3dong, 1472-16,She Seoul
KOR  Lee               JongHyun    0082-02-571-4997
     Kaepo-dong, 27-321,656    Seoul          135-240
KOR  Kim               KangHoe     0082-2-817-0942
     Shindaubang-2dong,334-192 Seoul          156-012
KUW  Muqaddas          Ammar       +965-5318720
     P.O.Box 44665             Hawally         32061
KUW  Ramadhan          AbdulAmeer  +965-531720
     P.O.Box 44665             Hawally         32061
KUW  Qasem             Abdulaziz   9655318720
     P.O.Box 44665             Hawally         32061
KUW  AlMutawa          Abdullah    +965-5318720
     P.O.BOX 44665             Haewally        32061
LAT  Galvans           Andris      007-013-963396

LAT  Karnitis          Girts       07-013-2-553258

LAT  Lazdinch          Armands     007-013-52-33492

LAT  Mierinch          Erik        007-013-2-454344

LIT  Alaburda          Marius      007-0127-237014
     Baltu ave. 59-2           Kaunas          3008
LIT  Ambraziunas       Valdas      007-0122-779557
     Urbso str. 12-17          Kaunas          3042
LIT  Kudzma            Daumantas   007-0122-443985
     Architektu str. 212-7     Vilnius         2049
LIT  Meinorius         Giedrius    007-0127-730448
     Savanoriu ave. 237-11     Kaunas          3005
LUX  Kornelis          Wouter      00352-808499
     Seiteschgrund             Diekirch        9281
LUX  Wolff             Pascal      00352-808811
     Rue de l'Eglise, 3        Bettendorf      9355
MAC  Lam               ChiKun      00853-300171
     Rua Coelho Do Amaral83B R Macau
MAC  Wong              IoKuan      00853-514123
     Bar.Iao Hom29,13F/I Rua1  Macau
MAC  Fong              KaiNam      00853-330912
     Praca Ponte E Horta 9G Ed Macau
MAC  Lam               WaiIp       00853-524201
     Av.deSid.Tais27Edf.LongVi Macau
MAL  Gafa              Paul        00356
     St.Andrew St. Birzebbugia BBG             04
MAL  Muscat            Albert      00356-574738
     Gardenia Sir Harry Luke S MST             10
MAL  Vella             Stephen
     Block B Flat 3            MtarfaRabat     RBT10
MAL  Vella             Vincent     00356-452217
     St. Paul Fl.,P.MuscatStr. Rabat           RBT 08
NL   Dekkers           Sophia      0031-80-221952
     Prof.Terlingenstr 6       Nymegen        NL-6524
NL   TerHuurne         Maarten     0031-160821496
     Vondellcan 39             Etten-Leur     NL-4073
NL   DeGroot           Hermana     0031-8865-1527
     Middleveld 32             Zeeland        NL-5411
NL   VanderVorrden     Danny       0031-106010235
     Oostdijk 259              Oud-Beijerland NL-3261
PL   Blaszczyk         Tomasz      0042-18-5039
     Adamowek 1                Ozorkow         95-055
PL   Pliszka           Jacek
     Poznanska 119A/32         Lomza           18-400
PL   Bogacz            Rafal
     Damrota 39 M 3            Wroclaw         50-306
PL   Smigielski        Tomasz
     Walecznych 8 u 41         Bydgoszcz       85-828
POR  QzuinzelaMPocas   Andreia     00351-02-9120801
     Rua da Quelha, 160        Valongo         4440
POR  MatosPinto        Jose        00351-02-9122626
     Rua Conde Ferreira        Valongo         4440
POR  PauloOAlmeida     Joao        00351-02-9120253
     R. Alex. Herculano175-1   Valongo         4440
RO   Praun             EmilConsta  0040-90-265328
     Drumul Taberei 65,BlocA6  Bucarest
RO   Ghenea            Bogdan
     Dezrobirii 48, BlocP4,Sc. Bucarest
RO   Necula            Valentin    0040-92-125096
     Bd. Garii 58, Bloc 227,Sc Brasov
RO   Lupsa             RaduLucian  0040-95-161097
     Agricultorilor 20,BlD4 63 Cluj
RUS  Ioffe             Sergey
     Pervaya, 22-45            ChernogolovkaMo 142432
RUS  Kuznetsov         Evgeney
     Pavlino 15-115            Zheleznodorozhn 143980
RUS  Zoukov            Dmitry      007-095-555-8636
     Lytkarino, 11-1-52        MoscowRegion    140061
RUS  Davydak           Dmitry      007-812-3932645
     Serebriesty Blv. 26-175   SanktPeterburg
SAF  Butler            David       0027-012-464482
     Mackenzie Street 234      BrooklynPTA     0181
SAF  Coetzer           MartinJ     0027-012-3434321
     Brouberghof 4,396DeKookst Pretoria        0002
SAF  DelOude           Walter      0027-011-673-2837
     Boschendal Drive 6,N.Ex19 Johannesburg    1709
SAF  Guthrie           KeithAllen  0027-011-888-5615
     Cecilia Ave. 7            RisidaleJohan   2195
SIN  Leok              Melvin      0065-2253993
     Spottiswoode Park Rd.106  Singapore       2008
SIN  Tan               KongHwee    0065-2260057
     Tanjong Pagar Plaza 7     Singapore       0208
SIN  Yee               YangLi      0065-2586611
     Binchang Rise             Singapore       2057
SIN  Lim               YuenChen    0065-2598835
     Bishan Street 154 -13    Singapore       2057
SPA  MercaderBarata    Jorge       0034-3-204-49-23
     P. Manuel Girona, 67 3 1a Barcelona       08034
SPA  Pol               Andras      0034-3-203-8422
     Padro de la Creu, 48 4 2  Barcelona       08034
SPA  PerezBreva        Luis        0034-18-15-97
     Ronda General Mitre, 141  Barcelona       08022
SPA  SanchezMarquiegui Javier      0034-3-204-49-23
     Santalo, 137 2 2a         Barcelona       08021
SRI  Zavahir           AhamedSifa
     St. Anthony's Square      Wattala
SRI  Jayaweera         Gayan       0094-1-553260
     City Blg.                 Nugegoda
SRI  Jayasinghe        Aroshan     0094-1-563455
     Old Nawala Rd., 137       Rajagiriya
SRI  Jayawardena       Sidath      0094-1-713640
     Anderson Road, 137/1b     Dehiwala
SW   Huss              Fredrik

SW   Comstedt          Marcus

SW   Een               Niklas

SW   Nilsson           Jesper

THA  Fagcharoenphon    Jittat      00662-3924021
     Malaiman Rd. 35/51        NakornPath      73000
THA  Asavanuchit       Pinit       00882-8141484
     Ramkamheang 22,19Ramkamhe Bangkok         10240
THA  Yamwong           Wittawat    00662-5738338
     Changwatana Rd. 11/23     Bangkok         10210
THA  Thaisedhawatkul   Suttirak    00662-3981908
     Sinkao Village Srinakarin Bangkok         10260
TT   Lalla             Brian       001809-665-4108
     Eleanor St. 24            ChaguanasTrinid
TT   Sirinathsingh     Mansoor     001809-662-2558
     Hillcote Dev. 2, CornerSc StAugustineTrin
TT   Seurattan         Mark        001809-674-3041
     Pole# 52,LowerDonMiguelRd SanJuanTrinidad
TT   LeeSeyon          Geoff       001809-643-3272
     Tumpuna Rd. 78            GunapoArimaTrin
TUN  BenFraj           Zamen       00216-7-222136
     Av. Mongi Slim V. Clover  Kairouan        3100
TUN  Bouguerra         Youssef     00216-1-731-712
     Lycee de Carthage Preside Carthage        2016
TUN  Guermach          Samir
     Mohamed El Bjaoui Ave, 5  MelBourguiba
TUN  Jarraya           Bechir      00216-04-54876
     Km 4,5 Route Teniour      Sfax            3000
UK   Rix               Antony      0044-61-4323113
     Cavendish Road 39         HeatonMerseySto SK4 30
UK   Sullivan          John        0044-61-43-5408
     Parsonage Rd.             WithingtonManch M20 9P
UK   Forster           Richard     0044-619804278
     Park Road, 119, Hale      AltrinchamChesh WAI5 9
UK   Clarke            Peter       0044-61-6523800
     Langley Ave. 1, Grottom   Oldham          0L4 5R
UKR  Filippenko        Denis
     Apt. 69, 10 Dzerjinsky Av Donetsk         340000
UKR  Bondarenko        Vitaly      007-0572-458-569
     Apt. 25, 37 Internazional PokotilovkaKhar
UKR  Matlach           Pavel       007-05161-48751
     Apt. 59, 40 Metallistov S PervomaisNikola 329810
UKR  Skvortsov         Alexei      007-0562-182-123
     Apt. 83, 18 Frunze St.    JubileinyDnepro 322115
USA  Bronson           Nathan      001-704-843-3769
     Lancaster Hwy. 10018      WaxhowNorthCaro 28173
USA  Hunt              Russel      001-919-836-9995
     Shaftsberry St. 321       RaleighNC       27609
USA  Prior             Michael     001-919-812-0337
     Rainwater Rd. 6816        RaleighNC       27615
USA  Smith             Shawn       001-703-938-3942
     Hunter Ridge Drive 10403  OaktonVirginia  22124
VIE  LeVan             Tri
     N2Tap the Vien Khoahoc Ki Hanoi
VIE  NguyenTuan        Viet
     Hue Street, 110           Hanoi
VIE  HaCong            Thanh
     Nguyen Trai               Hanoi
VIE  Tuan              PhamMinh
     NGO 28 Ham Long2-HoanKiem Hanoi
Adresses of Teamleaders
ALG  Zaoui             Rachid     Prof.
     Lycee Lotfi d'Oran
     Oran
     Fax: 00213-2594104        00213-06-357710
ALG  Kesserli          Samia      Prof.
     Lycee Ourida Meddec       Alger
     Cite 3 mai 1945           BELKiffau BT2A
     Fax:                      00213-503310
ARG  Banuelos          Alicia     Dr.
     SID-SECYT
     Cordoba 831               Buenos Aires 1054
     Fax: 00541-3131749        00541-3124142
ARG  Ryckeboer         HugoEmilio Dr.
     SID-SECYT
     Cordoba 831, 5th Floor    BuenosAires 1054
     Fax: 0054-1-3131749       0054-1-3124142
AUS  Penney            Ian
     Computer Studies          Melbourne High School
     Forrest Hill              SouthYarraVict 3141
     Fax: 00613-8268767        00613-5803669
AUT  Fuchs             KarlJosef  Prof.
                               Bundesgymnasium
     Schützengasse 3           Hallein A-5400
     Fax: 0043-222-53418205    0662-642505
B    Rooseleer         Yvan
     Projekt Informatica       Ntl. Verbond Kath.Sec.
     Guimardstraat 1           Brussel 1040
     Fax: 0032-25113357        0032-25070633
B    VanDyck           Roland     Engeneer

     Vinkstraat 29             Willebroek 2830
     Fax:                      0032-3-8860307
BRU  Kotov             VladimirM  Dr.

     Flat 175, 8 Izvestia Ave. Minsk 220055
     Fax: 007-0172-208057      007-0172-208544
BRU  Ratobylska        EmiliyaS

     Flat 68, 31 Judro str.    Minsk 220104
     Fax:
BUL  Azalov            Pavel      Ph.D.
     Sofia University          Faculty of Math & Info
     James Bouchier str. 5     Sofia 1126
     Fax: 00359-2-687180       00359-2-84-81
BUL  Gavrailov         Ognian
     Math. Faculty             Sofia University
     Anton Ivanov str.         Sofia 1126
     Fax:                      00359-2-654173
CH   Strebel           Peter      Dr.
     Kanton Zürich             Kantonschule Dübendorf
     Zwinggartenstr. 28        Dübendorf 8600
     Fax: 00411-821-1416       00411-833-3701
CHI  Wu                Wenhu      Prof.
     Comp.Science&Technology   Tsinghua Universityx
     Tsinghua Yuar             Beijing 100084
     Fax: 0086-1-8321914       0086-1-2595223
CHI  Xue               Hongxi     Ass. Prof.
     Computer Science & Techn. Tsinghue University
     Tsinghua Yuan             Beijing 100084
     Fax:                      0086-1-2595257
COL  CruzSoriano       MarioVicen Comp. Eng.
                               Corpor.Uni.AntonioNari

     A.A. 44564                Bogota
     Fax: 00591-209388         00591-2214135
CUB  Oquando           Alfredo    Lic.
     Computacion               Mined
     Otispo 160                Habana
     Fax:
CUB  MateoTrujillo     Maria      Lic.
     Computacion               Mined (oc)
     Obispo 160                Habana
     Fax:
CYP  Hadjicharalambo   Michael
     Comp. Services Department Electricity Authority
     P.O. Box 4506             Nicosia
     Fax: 00357-2-447349       00357-2-462001
CYP  Masouras          Panicos
     Computer Studies          Higher Technical Insti
     P.O. Box 2423             Nicosia
     Fax:                      00357-2-475109
CZ   Sedlacek          Vaclav     Dr.
     Dept Computing Science    Masaryk University
     Buresova 20               Brno 60200
     Fax: 0042-5-750000        0042-5-757000-239
CZ   Nemec             Richard    Mgr.
     Dept.of Art. Intelligence Faculty of Math & Phys
     Mlynska dolina            Bratislave 84200
     Fax:                      0042-07-720003-253
D    Fothe             Michael    Dr.
     Spezialschule             Erfurt
     Vilniuser Str. 18         Erfurt 05062
     Fax:                      00361-721163
D    Reineke           Vera       OStR
     Helene-Lange-Gymnasium    Hannover
     Im Eschbruch 10a          Ronnenberg 3003
     Fax:                      05108-6675
DK   Nielsen           Jorgen

     Erantisvej 5, Tilst       Mundelstrup DK-8381
     Fax: 0045-86229956        0045-86242116
EST  Prank             Rein       Dr.
     Dept. of Computer Science Tartu University
     Liivi Str. 2              Tartu EE2400
     Fax: 0070-1434-35440      0070-1434-35416
EST  Jentson           Indrek
     Computing Centre          Nyo Science School
     Haridure Str. 3           Nyo EE2440
     Fax:                      007-01434-55190
F    Dumont            Bernard    Prof.
     C.N.R. Didactique         Universite de ParisVII
     Place Jussleu             Paris F-75005
     Fax: 0033-4427-5740       0033-4427-6074
FI   Nurmi             Otto       Dr.
     Dept Computer Science     University
     Teollisuuskatu 23         Helsinki SF-00510
     Fax: 00358-0-7084250      00358-0-7084250
FI   Hirvonen          Jukka      MSC, Princ
     Malmin ykiaste
     Talvelantie 1             Helsinki 00700
     Fax:                      00358-0-3519813
GAB  Massala           Gabriel
     Ministere de l'Education  Attn. Mme P. Mousseau
                               Libreville
     Fax:
GAB  BisseOngaye       Jerome


     Fax:
GRE  Bakogiannis       Spyros
                               Greek Computer Soc.
     Sina Str. 44              Athens 10672
     Fax: 0030-1-3645154       0030-1-3645274
GRE  Georgopoulou      Catherine

     Doiranis Str. 161, Kallit Athens 17673
     Fax:                      0030-1-9584893
H    Hanak             Peter      Dr.
     Dept of Math,Comp.Science Techn Uni Budapest
     Goldmann György Ter       Budapest 1521
     Fax: 0036-1-181-2366      0036-1-112-2985
H    Ree               Blazs      MSc
     Group o.Comp.Scie&InfTheo Dept.ofMath,TU Budapes
     Goldmann György Ter       Budapest 1521
     Fax:                      0036-1-155-3020
HKG  Teng              Shiu-bong
     Education Dept            Computer Education Sec
     Lee Gardens, Hysan Ave    HongKong
     Fax: 00852-895-4217       00852-839-2478
HKG  Chan              HingLam
     Education Department      Computer Education Sec
     Lee Gardens 4/Fl.         HysanAveHongk
     Fax:                      00852-8392460
I    Matarazzo         Maria

     Via Caravaggio 184        Napoli 80126
     Fax:
I    Iollo             Margherita
     I.T.I.S. "F. Giordani"
     Via Caravaggio, 184       Napoli 80126
     Fax: 0039-81-650966       0039-81-7142956
IFI  VanWeert          Tom
     IFIP working group

     Fax:
IRA  Tabesh            Yahya      Prof.
     Dept. Math. Sciences      Sharif University Tech
     P.O. Box 11365            Tehran 9415
     Fax: 0098-21-401-2983     0098-21-400 5117
IRA  Ghodsi            Mohammad   Dr.
     Computer Science          Sharif Univ. of Techn.
     P.O. Box 11365            Tehran 9415
     Fax:                      98-21-4005117
KOR  Kimn              HaJine     Pres./Prof
                               Korea Inf. Science Soc
     Bangbai-3dong,984-1,Soech Seoul 137-063
     Fax: 0082-2-521-1352      0082-2-815-5349
KOR  Chwa              KyungYong  Prof.
                               Korea Info.Science Soc
     Banbae-3dong984-1, Seocho Seoul 137-063
     Fax:                      0082-2-588-9246
KUW  Alkhabbaz         MakkiF

     P.O.Box 36907             Alraas 24760
     Fax: +965-5326746         +965-5318720
KUW  AhamedMohamed     AbdelGhany
     Project Comp in School    Min.of Education
     P.O.Box 4465              Hawally 32061
     Fax:                      +965-5318720
LAT  Vitins            Maris      Head o.Dep
     Dept. of Educ.Techn.&Soft Inst.Math&Comp.S.,UniL
     Rainis Boulevard, 29      Riga 226250
     Fax: 007-0132-224730      007-0132-223727
LAT  Vezis             Viesturs   Assistant
     Dept.of Physics and Maths University of Latvia
     Rainis Blvd 19            Riga 226098

     Fax:                      007-013-2228120
LIT  Grigas            Gintautas  Dr.
                               Inst.of Mathem. & Info
     Akademijosstr. 4          Vilnius 2600
     Fax: 007-0122-359909      007-0122-359601
LIT  Dagys             Victoras
                               Inst. of Math. & Infor
     Akademijos str. 4         Vilnius 2600
     Fax:                      007-0122-359605
LUX  Leytem            Charles
                               Lycee Classique Diekir
     Ave. de la Gare, 32       Diekirch 9233
     Fax: 00352-809584         00352-859575
LUX  Weiler            Daniel     Dipl.-Math

     Rue Dicks-Lentz, 12       Bascharage 4952
     Fax:                      00352-501668
MAC  Lam               Teng
     Computer Studies Dept.    Macau Polytechnic Inst
     P.O. Box 286              Macau
     Fax: 00853-830532         00853-3974-414
MAC  Tang              SaiWei
     Computer Studies Dept.    Macau Polytechnic Inst
     P.O. Box 286              Macau
     Fax:                      00853-3974404
MAL  Galea             Joseph
     Education Department      Paolino Vassallo U.Lyc
     Corradino Hill            PaolaPla 08
     Fax: 00356-221634         00356-459747
MAL  Zammit            Laurence
     Education Department      Fellenberg Training Ce
     Corradino Hill            Paola
     Fax:                      00356-443266
MEX  ViruenaSilva      Eduardo    Prof.
     Escuela Mathematicas      Inst.Politecnico Natio
     Unidad Professional 9     MexicoCity
     Fax: 0052-5-586-28-25
MON  Lkhachin          Choijoovan
     Dept.of Informatics&Math. State Pedagogikal Univ
                               Ulan Bator 11
     Fax:                      24-0-03
MON  Yadamjav          Zeneemeder
     Dept. of Inform. & Math.  State Pedagogikal Univ
                               Ulaanbaatar 11
     Fax:                      24-0-03
NL   Kock              Ries       Dr.
                               Inst. f. Curriculum De
     P.O. Box 2041             CA Enschede 7500
     Fax: 0031-53-307692       0031-53-840343
NL   Crutzen           Ceciel
                               Open University
     Postbus 2960              Heerlen NL-6401
     Fax:                      0031-45-451967
PL   Waligorski        Stanislaw  Prof.
     Institute of Informatics  Warsaw University
     Banacha 2                 Warsaw 02097
     Fax: 0048-2-6583164       0048-2-6583164
PL   Walat             Andrzej    Dr.
                               Osrodek Edukacji Infor
     Raszynska 8/10            Warsaw 01-864
     Fax:                      0048-2-6333498
POR  Concalves         AntonioJM  Prof.
                               Assoc.Portug.deInform
     Av. Almirante Reis, 127-1 Lisboa 1100
     Fax: 00351-1-570410       00351-1-7580585
POR  DuartePinto       MariaJose  Engineer
                               Escola Secund. Valongo
     Rua do Calvario           Valongo 4440
     Fax:                      00351-02-9120455
RO   Niculescu         Stelian    Dr.
     Invatamint Preuniversitar Ministry of Educ. & Sc
     Gl. Berthelot 30-32       Bucarest 70738
     Fax: 0040-0-157736        0040-0-139228
RO   Georgescu         HoriaIoan  Dr.
     Univ. of Bucarest         Faculty of Mathematics
     Academiei 14              Bucarest
     Fax:                      0040-0-145889
RUS  Kiryukhin         Vladimir   Ass.Prof.
     Cybernetics               Moscow Phys.Engen.Inst
     Kashirskoe Shosse, 31     Moscow 115409
     Fax: 007-095-3242111      007-095-3882482
RUS  Andreeva          Elena      Ph.D.Assis
     Spec.Educ.Research Center Moscow State Universit
     Krmenchugskaya Str. 11    Moscow 112357
     Fax:                      007-095-4454054
SAF  Waker             Pieter
                               South African Comp.Oly
     P.O. Box 13287            Mowbray 7705
     Fax: 0027-21-686-4153     0027-21-689-8912
SAF  Stilborg          Per
     Information Techn. Plan.  Old Mutual
     P.O. Box 66               CapeTown 8000
     Fax:                      0027-21-5093652
SIN  Tan               TuckChoy
     Inf. Systems & Compt.Scie Ntl. Univ. of Singapor
     Lower Kent Ridge Rd.      Singapore 0511
     Fax: 0065-7794580         0065-7722906
SIN  Cheng             HueyTeng
     Computer-Based Education  Curriculum Developm.In
     Bukit Timah Road 465-E    Singapore 1025
     Fax:                      0065-4605442
SPA  GonilaFerrando    Miguel
     Computer Dept.            Aula-European School
     M. de Deu de Lorda 34     Barcelona 08034
     Fax:                      0034-3-4107236
SPA  PratValverde      Angeles


     Fax:
SRI  Chandranath       Lalkumar   Dir./G.Man
     Administration Dept.      DMS Electronics Ltd.
     Dharmapala Mawatha 207/1  Colombo
     Fax: 0094-1-698008        0094-1-691649
SRI  Rodrigo           JohnPalith Gen.Manag.
     Administration Dept.      DMS Training Centre
     Dharmapala Mawatha, 165   Colombo 7
     Fax:                      0094-1-686239
SW   Strömberg         Hakan

     Myggdalsvagen 76          Tyresö 135 43
     Fax: 0046-8-7121304       0046-8-7128405
SW   Edling            Anders


     Fax:
THA  Malaivongs        Kanchit    Ass. Prof.
     The Inst. f.the Promotion Of Teaching Science&Te
     Sukhumvit Road 924        Bangkok 10110
     Fax: 00662-3810750        00662-2714950
THA  Poovarawan        Yuen       Ass. Prof.
     Institute f.the Promotion Of Teaching Science &T
     Sukhumvit Rd. 924         Bangkok 10110
     Fax:                      00662-5795539
TT   Lutchman          Claude
     Rudnanath Capildeo Learn. Resource Centre
     McBean                    CouvaTrinidadWI
     Fax:                      00809-662-4505
TT   Samlal            Jassodra
                               Reform Village
     Paul Street               GasparilloTrini
     Fax:                      001809-650-2608
TUN  Douari            Rached


     Fax:
TUN  Abidi             Abdelhafid

     Cite Avicenne Imm.B5 A165 Quardia7 1009
     Fax:                      00216-342-520
TUR  Ücoluk            Göktürk    Dr.
     Dept. of Computer Eng.    O.D.T.Ü.(MiddleEast TU
                               Ankara
     Fax: 0090-4-2868624       0090-4-2237100(2084)
UK   Bird              Steven

     Lark Ave. 1, Penwortham   PrestonLancs PR1 9R
     Fax:                      0044-772-741346
UK   Davis             Phil
     Management Inform.Service Bolton Metropolitan Co
     Manchester Road           Bolton BL2IER
     Fax: 0044-204-28768       0044-204-31411/ 3453
UKR  Bykov             Valery     Prof.
     Main Computer Center      Ministry of Pub.Educat
     Artyoma St., 52-d         Kiev 252053
     Fax: 007-044-2132340      007044-2132330
UKR  Bardadym          Victor     PhD
     Training Center           V.L.Glushkov Inst.ofCy
     Academician Gluskov Ave40 Kiev 252207
     Fax:                      007-044-2666311
UN   Jacobsen          Edward
     Education Section         Unesco
     Place de Fontenoy, 7      Paris F-75700
     Fax: 00-33-1-40659405     00-1-45680845
USA  Piele             Donald     Dr.
     Math. Dept.               Univ Wisconsin Parksid
     Wood Rd, Box 200          Kenosha       WI 53141
     Fax: 001-414-5952056      001-414-6340868
USA  Datta             David
     Computing Support Center  Uni. Wisconsin-Parksid
     Wood Rd. 900              KenoshaWisconsi 53141
     Fax:                      001-414-694-1112
VIE  Dam               HoSi
     Institute of Informatics  Hanoi University
     Nguyen Trai Dongda 90     Hanoi
     Fax: 0084-2-43061         00848-42-45280
VIE  Nhan              DangKhac
     General Education Departm Ministry of Educ.&Trai
     Dai Co Viet Street        Hanoi
     Fax:                      00848-42-54256
ZIM  Mumford           Shaun
     C F Tulley Associates
     P.O.Box 2191              Bulawayo
     Fax: 00110-263-9-74009    00110-263-9-74431
Accompanying Persons
ARG  Banuelos          Amalia      0054-1-3124142
     Cordoba 831 - 5th Floor   BuenosAires 1054
ARG  Porter            Sergio      00-54-1-3131749
     Cordoba 831 - 5th Floor   BuenosAires 1054
ARG  Bensadon          MarioJulio  0054-1-3124142
     Cordoba 831 - 5th Floor   BuenosAires 1054
B    Prime             Kristel     003253-672815
     Gravensbosstraat 134      Liedekerke 1770
B    Rooseler          Katrien     0032-53672815
     Gravenbosstraat 134       Liedekerke
B    DeSchryver        Mrs

CHI  Ling              Qiyu
     Changshu Road 157         Shanghai 200031
DK   Nielsen           Kirsten     0045-86242116
     Erantisvej 5, Tilst       Mundelstrup DK-8381
DK   Nielsen           Mikkel      0045-86242116
     Erantisvej 5, Tilst       Mundelstrup DK-8381
DK   Nielsen           Lasse       0045-86242116
     Erantisvej 5, Tilst       Mundelstrup DK-8381
GRE  Kilias            Christos    0030-1-3645594
     Stournara Str. 49a        Athens 10682
HKG  Yung              WaiMing     00852-812-0521
     B18                       HongKong
I    Mastronardi       Giuseppe

I    NN

I    Ille              Daniela     0039-81-7413893
     Via Caravaggio 184        Napoli 80126
IFI  VanWeert          Wife

KOR  Lee               NamHo       0082-2-588-9246
     Bangbae-3dong 984-1,Seoch Seoul 137-063
KOR  Bae               ChanWoo     0082-2-588-9246
     Bangbai-3dong, 984-1,Soec Seoul 137-063
KOR  Kim               SangBeom    0082-3-588-9246
     Bangbae-3-dong, 894-1, Se Seoul 137-063
KOR  Chang             JikHyun     0082-2-588-9246
     Bangbae-3dong, 984-1,Seoc Seoul 137-063
KOR  Shin              JongOh      0082-02-751-5329
     Sunhwa-Dong 7             Seoul 100-759
KUW  AlHelal           Mohammed
     P.O.Box 36907             Alraas 24760
KUW  Alowaiyesh        Waleed      00965-53-18720
     P.O.Box 36907             Alraas 24760
MAL  Galea             Josette     00356-459747
     Sirius, 37, Carlo Fiaming TalVirtuRabat RBT09
MAL  Galea             Robert      00356-459747
     Sirius, 37, Carlo Flaming TalVirtuRabat RBT 09
MEX  LupercioLara      Ernesto
                               MexicoCity
NL   VanderVegt        Willem      0031-38-540538
     Postbus 10090             Zwolle NL-8000
POR  JesusPereira      MariaHelen  00351-1-9430242
     Rue Cidade de Benguela    Lisboa 1800
POR  DuartePinto       Mr
     Rua do Calvario, 2        Valongo 4440
SW   Strömberg         Anna
     Myggdalsv 76              Tyresö 135 43
THA  Vongsirojgul      Naree       00662-3924021-9
     Sukhumvit Rd. 924         Bangkok 10110
THA  Lertratanawisute  Prasong     00662-3924021
     Sukhumvit Rd.,924         Bangkok 10110
THA  Charoenpanich     Waraporn    00662-3924021
     Sukhumvit Rd. 924         Bangkok 10110
THA  Phandpipat        Pongsathor  00662-3924021
     Sukhumvit Rd., 924        Bangkok 10110
TT   Lutchman          Grace       001809-662-4505
               Greenvale Ave.51,Valsayn  TrinidadWI

8. Members of Committees

8.1 International Jury

     	               	Peter Widmayer (President)
ALG  	Algeria        	Rachid Chaoui
ARG  	Argentina      	Alicia Banuelos
AUS  	Australia      	Ian Penney
AUT  	Austria        	Eduard Szirucsek
B    	Belgium        	Yvan Rooseleer
BRU  	Belorussia     	Vladimir Kotov
BUL  	Bulgaria       	Pavel Azalov
CH   	Switzerland    	Peter Strebel
CHI  	China          	Wenhu Wu
COL  	Colombia       	MarioVicen CruzSoriano
CUB  	Cuba           	Alfredo Oquando
CYP  	Cyprus         	Michael Hadjicharalambo
CZ   	Czechoslovakia 	Vaclav Sedlacek
D    	Germany        	Michael Fothe
DK   	Denmark        	Anne Lyngdorf *
EST  	Estonia        	Rein Frank
FI   	Finland        	Otto Nurmi
GAB  	Gabon          	Gabriel Massala
GRE  	Greece         	Spyros Bakogiannis
H    	Hungary        	Peter Hanak
HKG  	Hong Kong      	Shiu-bong Teng
I    	Italy          	Margherita Iollo
IRA  	Iran           	Yahya Tabesh
KOR  	Korea Rep. of   	HaJine Kimn
KUW  	Kuwait         	Makki NasserAlKhabbaz
LAT  	Latvia         	Maris Vitins
LIT  	Lithuania      	Gintautas Grigas
LUX  	Luxembourg     	Charles Leytem
MAC  	Macao          	Teng Lam
MAL  	Malta          	Joseph Galea
MEX  	Mexico         	Olga HernandezChavez *
MON  	Mongolia       	Choijoovan Lkhachin
NL   	Netherlands    	Ries Kock
PL   	Poland         	Stanislaw Waligorski
POR  	Portugal       	Antonio Concalves
RO   	Romania        	Stelian Niculescu
RUS  	Russia         	Vladimir Kiryukhin
SAF  	South Africa   	Pieter Walker
SIN  	Singapore      	TuckChoy Tan
SPA  	Spain          	Angeles PratValverde
SRI  	Sri Lanka       	Lalkumar Chandranath
SW   	Sweden         	Hakan Stromberg
THA  	Thailand       	Kanchit Malaivongs
TT   	Trinidad Tobago	Claude Lutchman
TUN  	Tunisia        	Naoufel Ghazouani
TUR  	Turkey         	Göktürk Ücoluk *
UK   	Unitedkingdom  	Steven Bird
UKR  	Ukraine        	Valery Bykov
USA  	United States  	Donald Piele
VIE  	Viet Nam       	HoSi Dam
ZIM  	Zimbabwe       	Shaun Mumford * (Observer)

8.2 International Committee

01  Dr. Peter Heyderhoff, Germany (President)
02  Prof. Pavel Azalov, Bulgaria
03  Dr. Alicia Banuelos, Argentina
04  Dr. Peter Hanak, Hungary
05  Mr. Steven Bird, United Kingdom
06  Prof. Christos Kilias, Greece
07  Prof. HaJine Kimn, Korea
08  Prof. Vladimir Kiryukhin, USSR
09  Dr. Vladimir Kotov, Belorussia
10  Dr. Ries Kock, Netherlands
11  Mr. Hakan Stromberg, Sweden

8.3 National Committee

01  Prof. Fritz Krückeberg, GMD (Chairman)
02  Ursula Brauer, University München
03  Prof. Volker Claus, University Oldenburg
04  Dr. Michael Fothe, Gymnasium Erfurt
05  Dr. Hans-Werner Hein, University Dortmund
16  Dr. Peter Heyderhoff, IOI'92 Managing Director
07  Prof. Immo Kerner, University Dresden
08  Dr. H.-G. Klaus, GMD
09  OStR Dr. Leo Klingen, Gymnasium Bonn
10  MinR H.G. Langewiesche, State Ministry
11  OStR Ina Leiß, Gymnasium Oppenheim
12  Prof. Rüdiger Loos, University Tübingen
13  OStR Günther Miklitz, IOI'92 Organizer
14  MinR Renate Musso, Federal Ministerium
15  OStR Vera Reineke, Gymnasium Hannover
16  Dr. Karlheinz Schunk, GMD
17  Dr. Hans Ingo Tilgner, Federal Ministry
18  Prof. Roland Vollmar, GI
19  Prof. Peter Widmayer, ETH Zürich

8.4 Scientific Committee

01  Dr. H.-W. Hein, University Dortmund (Chairman)
02  Friedrich Gasper, Gymnasium Bitburg
03  Dr. Alois Heinz, University Freiburg
04  Prof. Immo Kerner, University Dresden
05  Prof. Herbert Klaeren, University Tübingen
06  OStR Ina Leiß, Gymnasium Oppenheim
07  Dr. Einar Smith, GMD, I1.P, Bonn
08  Dr. Thomas Worsch, University Karlsruhe
09  Uwe Walter Cypa, University Dortmund
	(Programming Assistant)

8.5 Coordinating Committee

01  Dr. H.-W. Hein, University Dortmund (Chairman)
02  Josef Börding, GMD, I8 Bonn
03  Christian-Arved Bohn, GMD, HR.VIS Bonn
04  Mdombe Cacutalua, GMD, I5 Bonn
05  Stefan Focke, GMD, I8 Bonn
06  Friedrich Gasper, Gymnasium Bitburg
07  Martin Gergeleit, GMD, I5.RS Bonn
08  Denis Giffeler, GMD, I8 Bonn
09  Christian Haider, GMD, I3.KI Bonn
10  Dr. Ludwig Hausen, GMD, I8 Bonn
11  Dr. Alois Heinz, University Freiburg
12  Rüdiger Hüttenhain, GMD, I8 Bonn
13  Michaela Huhn, University Hildesheim
14  Wolfgang Joppich, GMD, I1.T Bonn
15  Gilbert Kalb, GMD, AIA Bonn
16  Gerd Kellermann, GMD, I3.KI Bonn
17  Prof. Immo Kerner, University Dresden
18  Prof. Herbert Klaeren, University Tübingen
19  Dr. Leo Klingen, Gymnasium Bonn
20  Jelske Kloppenburg, GMD, I8.IT Bonn
21  OStR Ina Leiß, Gymnasium Oppenheim
22  Dr. Axel Poigne, GMD, I5.SKS Bonn
23  Dr. Hugo-E. Ryckeboer (Guest)
24  Dr. Einar Smith, GMD, I1.P Bonn
25  Uwe Schnepf, GMD, I3.KI Bonn
26  Dr. Göktürk Ücoluk (Guest)
27  Rüdiger Westermann, GMD, VISWIZ Bonn
28  Dr. Thomas Worsch, University Karlsruhe

8.6 Organizing Committee

01  Dr. Peter Heyderhoff (Managing Director)
02  OStR Günther Miklitz (Chief Organizer)
03  Christel Klein (Secretary)
04  Birgit Dorn (Secretary)
05  Annette Kloppenburg (Chief Assistant)
06  Andrea Schoen (Assistant)
07  Andreas Voss (Software Consultant)
08  Fabian Braun (Technical Assistant)
09  Udo Lucas (Paedagogical Assistant)
10  Franz Koepke (Chief Technican)
11  Günther Hoens (Chief Technician)

8.7 Technical Committee

01  Fabian Braun (Chairman)
02  Morlaye Camara (Guinea)
03  Markus Grunau
04  Richard Hoffmann
05  Thorsten Joachims
06  Andre Kaufmann
07  Martin Kaufmann
08  Andreas Klatt
09  Olaf Kluge
10  Jens Krüger
11  Jan-Peter Lisaus
12  Sandra Lisaus
13  Fjodor Löhrig
14  Sean-Patrick Mulherrin
15  Thorsten Nahm
16  Alexander Nitschke
17  Marc Rehmsmeier
18  Klaus-Peter Röhrig
19  Wolfgang Schmiedle
20  Detlef Schwellenbach
21  Andreas Voss
22  Gregor Wenzel
23  Martin Wilke

8.8 Reception Committee

01  Annette Kloppenburg (Chair)
02  Juliane Bahnemann
03  Ulrike Bahnemann
04  Petra Blumberg
05  Myra Bujotzek
06  Melanie Bulow
07  Friederike Bungenstock
08  Hanna Diehl
09  Angelika Dietz
10  Eva Dietz
11  Claudia Dinkloh
12  Annette Fellner
13  Stefanie Saamer
14  Monika Ollig
15  Margret Henrichfreise
16  Doris Kessenich
17  Sandra Kietzke
18  Alexandra Löbach
19  Jenny Pfrengle
20  Stefanie Pieper
21  Astrid Pohlmann
22  Jessica Scheidle
23  Franziska Schmidt
24  Sonja Schwarz
25  Mirjam Stegherr
26  Sabine Theis
27  Alexandra Tiedtke
28  Isabel Ucsnay
29  Hend Lamti
30  Rim Lamti
31  JeanYves Bitterlich
32  Dany Plassmann
33  Wiebke Siemann
34  Katrin Müller
35  Stephanie Ludwig
36  Sharira Youssef
37  Friederike Jentsch
38  Kirstin Westkamp